Thomson: A Defense of Abortion

hello everyone welcome to another installment of the introductory lecture series as always I’m professor Zaldivar and today we’ll be talking about Judith Jarvis Thomson’s essay on abortion to begin the discussion I want to point out that there’s a sort of underlying principle that Thompson is making use of throughout her discussion which is to say that she highly values the principle of autonomy or the rights of autonomy we saw this before in the essay on drug use or the illegality of drugs and prohibition of drugs and when someone values the right of autonomy what they’re saying is that adults are very much entitled to doing things doing whatever they’d like and to having complete control over their own body keep that in mind as this discussion continues because you’ll be able to see how it impacts your position okay so her argument basically starts with the willingness to take on an initial claim that the initial claim that nothing can be done to end a fetus’s life in other words abortion is impermissible even to save the mother under all circumstances it is wrong to terminate a pregnancy now there’s a response to this which is namely doesn’t anyone have the right to defend themselves in the face of impending death so if someone is attacking you don’t you have the right to defend yourself and if you can only defend yourself by killing them then doesn’t that give you the right to kill them don’t we just call this self-defense and the answer seems to be yes that is what we call self-defense and yes people do have a right to protect their own life and while it’s regrettable and no one wants to if protecting your life can only be accomplished by killing someone else then you are morally entitled to kill the person well in the case of some pregnancies due to complications and health risks the mother’s life is indeed in danger the pregnancy is potentially fatal and sometimes definitely will be fatal to the mother so the mother’s life is in danger doesn’t she have a right to protect her life by cause by having an abortion Thompson uses the example of expanding of an expanding baby to illustrate this point so if you think that’s right or if you agree with her notice sometimes students will say well but the baby is innocent as we will see in the Jain English discussion whether a person is innocent or not actually doesn’t have very much impact on the question of self defense okay so assuming you you are on board with the argument so far or at least you’re following along you might think okay the initial position simply needs to be amended and now we can argue that nothing can be done to end if it is life unless the mother’s life is at risk however no third party can interfere which is to say the question of self defense and the morality of defense only applies the only people who can act are the mother and a fetus no one else can go in there because both the mother and fetus have an equal right to claim and when two people have equal rights then there’s no way to decide one two there’s no moral way to justify favoring one over the other because they have equal rights but Thompson says their response could be offered but certainly third parties are able to interfere if one of the two original parties has a just claim or has a more deserving claim in other words if two people having a dispute and they have absolutely equal rights that no one else can come in and pick one over the other person because the two people are equal in their standing but if the two people in dispute have unequal rights is more deserving or more correcting the other one then of course the third party can come in and side with the more deserving person so for example if a friend and I are walking down the street and we find a jacket and we both want to pick it up and we both want to take it home and we get into a fight over and a police officer shows up he has really no way of deciding who should get the jacket right because we both found it it doesn’t belong to either one of us originally we both have equal right to claim it now if I’m wearing a jacket and it’s my jacket and I put it on and leave my house and I’m walking along the street with my friend and my friend decides that he wants my jacket I’m trying to take it from me and we get into a fight over it and a police officer shows up clearly the police officer has the ability in fact has the obligation to stop the fight and to give me back my jacket in other words we’re in the first situation the officer has no way of knowing the way of deciding who should keep the jacket in the second situation the officer has a clear way of deciding who should give the jacket the original owner me so in the case of an abortion if we have two people with equal rights to life the mother and the fetus how can we decide who gets to live some people might say you can’t no one else can no one no one else has the ability to jump in at once or the other but then you say but the mother also has a right to her own body to use her body as she sees fit and so therefore she has an extra right she not only has the right to life which she has also not just the fetuses right to life they both have rights life she also has a right the right of autonomy the right to use her body and so therefore a doctor has a reason to interfere to protect her rights she in fact in this case has greater rights has more rights in play than the fetus so we have to amend ëget we have to amend the claim again but Thompson’s antagonists Knights to my say still this only justifies abortion if the mother’s life is at risk so if we grant that if the mother’s life is at risk she’s entitled to an abortion to protect her life and she entitled to it she’s entitled to assistance by doctors to protect her autonomy then this all this is true but only if the mother’s life is at risk and if the mother’s life is not at risk then it looks like she has no moral standing to have an abortion there’s of course a response to this the basic statement of response is no one has a right to force someone else to use their body in some way so in other words I don’t have a right to force someone else to use their body in a way that they don’t want to so consider that let’s say I have an unusual disease and I need Tom Cruise to put his forehead his hand on my forehead in order to save me well I deserve to live I have a right to life putting his hand on my forehead will not risk Tom Cruise life in any way would not be harmful to him in any way so some people might say I deserve to live and therefore Tom Cruise should put his hand on my forehead but if Tom Cruise doesn’t want to then I don’t have a right to kidnap him or to force him to put his hand on my forehead to force him to use his body in some way that I’m not comfortable with so a fetus even if a fetus is entitled to life I’m certainly every living thing is entitled to life it is not entitled to force a mother to use her body in a way that she does not want to and because of this it could be argued that abortion is basically always justified because anytime a woman wants to end the pregnancy forcing her to continue with the pregnancy would force her to use her body in a way that she doesn’t want to now sometimes we can respond to this by saying well the woman chose to have sex and she knew what the consequences were and so she can’t abandon her consequences after the fact for example when you go gambling and you put down some money you know you could lose it and if you lose the bet you don’t get to say oh I changed my mind I want to keep my money when you have unprotected sex you know you could get pregnant and when you do get pregnant you don’t get to say oh I changed my mind I don’t want my body to be used in this way and this is a sort of compelling an intuitively appealing line of argument the problem is that it conflates causal and more responsibility to the difference between saying I took I did certain things to put myself in a position to have something happen to me and being morally responsible for what happens to me I’ll give you some quick examples if I take a shower and fall down and break my head and die I have causal responsibility for that right in other words I chose to take a shower I got into the shower I turned on the water I took a step you know I did all the things that I needed that put me in a position to slip and fall so I’m positively responsible but am i morally responsible it doesn’t look like it it looks like I didn’t commit suicide there again another quick example let’s say I am driving my car and I’m good about up key but my car is well-maintained and there’s no mechanical problems as far as I know and I’m driving my car and I lose control of it through no fault of my own and I ram into another car and cause a person in that car to die I’m causally responsible for that there at least partially causally responsible for that death because I got in my car and I drove down the street and I chose to do these things and if I hadn’t done these things I would not have been in a position to ram the other car but I’m not morally responsible right I didn’t just commit murder so someone who has sex in a way which is intended to prevent pregnancy for example using protection contraception maybe multiple forms contraception would seem to bear some causal responsibility for a pregnancy right for Ana for unintentional pregnancy clearly they chose to have sex etc but it doesn’t look like they intended to get pregnant doesn’t look like they have more responsibility in other words getting pregnant when you’re trying not to seems to be a lot like falling in your bathroom because after all no one everyone going into a bathroom knows that they’re taking a risk in their life in their own hands the bathroom is the place is this is the greatest has the highest number of deaths of any room in the household it’s the place you’re most likely to die you’re inside your own house so everyone knows you step into the bathroom you’re stepping into a kill zone but no one wants to die when they do it and we don’t hold them morally responsible so if you’re having sex but you don’t want to get pregnant and you’re being responsible trying to avoid it using contraception etc then it looks like it could be argued that’s a little weird to hold you morally responsible alright that concludes our Thompson lecture do as always go read the essay because there’s a lot more information in there than I have time to cover in these lectures thanks very much for listening


[Music] beautiful train and saw history militia fighter national airiness copies and I based on its type of landscape 24 rainforest and right came to Highland and sandy beaches it’s fair for its ancient Buddha tune and during the 5th century Citadel figure with its Alice and fresco the city of unravel is Sri Lankan ancient capital has many rooms there in back more than 2,000 years without trip down the coast a column diving for yeah tonight for forget with the my results in Yemen we measure twenty point four eight million national anthem melanoma free then motivate to consciousness the iron in 55 they are a kingdom camelina if you not miss Tamil homeland Sinhalese Kingdom in the southwest from 55 to 1658 Portuguese have the island from 1650 a to 1796 does user control 1796 the British look over photographs and duck rules the Tamil and central Kingdom separately but the British art officially joined them for their administrative convenience only in 1836 4th of February 1948 British left the island leaving it as one country to learn little political power in the hands of the majority single population population of Sri Lanka is about 20 million they are as thin hair is Tamil Muslims with other nationalities in Sri Lanka single is our majority of the population camel is second largest population next lightest population is Muslim culture Sri Lanka is multicultural country people follow traditional culture the culture has raised artistic tradition on many signals follow the Buddhist cultural system we have traditional cultural credence such as Sinhalese Reza Hassan as a rescuer apart from that they have crunchin of custom India Africa system he lost another different traditional culture Muslim men are the religious house made culture of 50 Sri Lanka national self-named lion plan hosting hello self use civil and stared self proportion to upon one adopt 22 May 1972 design dark red rectangular panel border yellow containing a yellow lion holding a sword upright in it’s right for power and for more use one in each corner and next to the hoist to vertical face green and orange also Borden yellow together you [Music] [Applause] [Music] [Applause] [Music] [Music] [Applause] [Music] [Music] [Applause] [Music] [Applause] Oh [Music] [Music] [Music] yeah here [Music] [Music] [Applause] [Music] [Applause] [Music] [Applause] [Music] you No yeah No [Music]

Are Building Services a necessary evil?

as part of this series of Arab talks of building engineering I’ve chosen to talk about a subject very close to me building services design and its influence on our buildings my title our building services are necessary evil provoked different responses trying to get rid of them for years was the most popular response from architects and developers but it reminded me of something an architect colleague said he said structural engineers always start with bad news but it tends to get better whereas services engineers start with good news and then it just gets worse made me think that building services engineers need to say more about building services and not less so others understand their challenges but also the potential value of good design and installation I initially rejected the title a suggestion from my structural engineer boss but on reflection it was a very insightful view because it has an underlying theme around all of design so although I focus on building services today we can also ask is design a necessary evil the last 10 years have been very successful in driving out inefficiencies in construction and the industry in the UK has been transformed but as this approach squeezed design down in order to get a fixed price and have designed as responded well to this are we now homogenizing design in a rush to get things built and reduce risk the relevance for building services is to question whether we are building for ease of construction or for better performance so my talk starts with my studies I studied building services engineering at Reading University it was a new course that was set up to acknowledge the coming-of-age of this discipline of building design and it was ambitious in what it wanted as you would expect we studied mechanical and electrical engineering the design of systems to provide heating power cooling lighting and water in building but we also studied architecture and in particular the history of architecture how buildings have historically dealt with providing light and comfort and how this was always an integral part of building we took courses in weather patterns and climate so not only understanding internal environments but the climate around buildings and cities we also studied the design of simple agricultural buildings these buildings are driven by necessity and minimal cost to build and operate they are naturally lit and ventilated to meet a very precise function lastly we studied psychology the way people behave and interact with their environment and how design can influence our behavior what makes us happy or otherwise with our buildings down to the colors we see and how we respond to controls or a lack of controls the Reading University course recognized that building services was more than just the system’s inside buildings it was about integrating architecture building physics and the science for buildings the mechanical and electrical engineering in buildings and the people so I will start with architecture building services originated from machine engineering but the business of incorporating services in buildings was always with architects you can see this in windows and overhangs and chimneys service stairs around buildings these are always inherent in the architecture but when it comes to modern building services very little has been written and yet it’s so fundamental to architecture unless there is some very obvious visible feature it is not usually discussed in this context the exception to this is architectural historian Rana bannon’s book the architecture of the world tempered environment which is really the only architectural academic text dedicated to modern building services in architecture he said in a world more humanely arranged this book need never have been written because those services in buildings that provide the comfort and well-being of humans would always have been part of the history of architecture the birth of modern building services starts with air-conditioning and a block of ice to keep auditoria comfortable in the late 19th century a block of ice was melted next to a fan one ton of ice gave enough cooling to last the one performance this is still the common metric of cooling in the u.s. they started the development of air conditioning and the idea that cooling could be transferred mechanically around a building but these services were still in the early years seen as a supplement to the fundamental control of climate otherwise provided by the mass of the building and by regulating the opening sizes this is the Milan building completed in 1929 in Houston it’s considered the first air-conditioned building by Willis carrier but even with air conditioning there is still full access to light and opening windows these buildings grew in scale and number and with technology and familiarity they allowed the freedom for design to focus on maximizing the floor area and minimizing construction cost and later allowed more transparency very much advocated by modernist architecture advances in structure weren’t the only reason for taller buildings in fact tall structures already existed it was the services technology the lifts the artificial lighting and the air conditioning that made building tall habitable space as possible as the facade became less of an environmental regulator buildings became wholly reliant on building services to even be occupied today building services make up around 30% of the construction costs and 10% of the floor area however this area in cost was always previously built in as part of the architecture and not singled out it’s been taken to its ultimate in terms of expressing architecture this is Lloyd’s of London completed in the 1980s these buildings are highly reliant on complex control systems but can be separated from the surroundings that they’re in and the occupiers they serve and we as building services engineers are highly skilled in delivering these sorts of buildings this is inside Lloyds of London this building had one of the first fluid dynamic models built which demonstrated that for smoke and normal ventilation there was no need for additional fans or separation of space you can also note from this image the level of detail in the integration between engineers and architects this model for architecture has become normal and it is now embedded in our training education as well as the standards that go with modern buildings any shortfalls in buildings as climate regulators are then corrected by the building services this building in the city has a very large atrium and lift shaft on the entrance which faces southwest we demonstrated through very detailed analysis that this would be much better as a naturally ventilated space it has a 50 meter tall chimney above the entrance so no cooling equipment was required and it would have been cheaper to run however in the negotiations with the tenants engineer we ended up having to air-condition it the default standards for officers left us no room for sensible discussions I’m not discounting the glass box it keeps improving and has evolved at the Siemens crystal building the facades are sleek elevations but our combination of solid and glazed curtain walling panels which are angled to reflect the Sun and tuned to orientation the building has low-energy air-conditioning systems as a result and can also be naturally ventilated this is very much the designers working with tried and tested products and materials but in a different way so to close this section on architecture a summary of where we are high-tech buildings evolving over time and adapting their facades and M&E; systems for greater efficiency the Gherkin has an inner facade layer and buffer atria spaces the crystal has a very simple facade which is tuned to its orientation and the latest one The Shard has a fully glazed double facade with automated shading but how far does this way of building take us to answer this I go to my next topic bat of building science the physics and behavior of the building envelope the structure the form and heights of spaces and the materials that make up buildings our basic modern assumption is that services are separate to the other building components if there is enough space it is the most simple solution to completely separate out layers to make more efficient use of space services and structure can start to be physically integrated the Lloyds images earlier Illustrated this however the question of building science is how can structure architecture and services share function to save material and improve performance this goes back to earlier examples where buildings provided environmental control one thing it does which is almost the opposite of how modern construction works is to blur the edges between disciplines and force much closer working and less packaging which is another challenge for designers and builders when it is easier to deal with minimized and simple interfaces examples of buildings that rely on science or building physics tend to be smaller bespoke buildings in this example the necessity for using local materials and achieving natural ventilation and light as the only form of temperature control meant using the height and orientation of the building and its form to create the right environment the entire facade opens up and is entirely shaded to make this classroom work and of course there are plenty of other small-scale examples of building physics at work on a much larger scale and particularly in our cities there are only a few examples portcullis house is one which although considered bespoke and one-off it is an exemplar of integration of building physics and building services systems with architecture designed in 1994 you can read the systems and the structure in the facade which allowed clear open space inside and takes the services directly to the space as they serve the facade is tuned to the system with clerestory glazing to get light deep into rooms but a shaded triple glazed unit which is also the return air path to keep the windows cool the chimneys and the air handling units are the roof using the roof form they catch wind at lower level and then expel it through wind driven chimneys above a second more recent example shows that similar levels of integrated thinking can be achieved for more speculative officers the concrete structure is exposed for thermal mass and works with an underfloor air system conditioned air is circulated through central structural columns again for the most efficient way of distributing air to the floors this is a project that I worked on and I learned that the test of whether a design team has worked closely enough together is when everybody thinks it is their design and this is what integration looks like it is also about build services working with architectural form at the London Aquatic Center the building services work with the physics of the space air conditioning is only where there are people at low level so the rest of the space isn’t conditioned the facades allow the whole space to be naturally lit and give passive solar gains to reduce energy consumption the level of integrating performance of a system is at its best even though actual services cannot be read other buildings on the Olympic 2012 park have similar levels of performance integration this is something that isn’t so common outside of the UK and it shows the UK leading in holistic design thinking with the lure of BIM homogenizing design for construction again we need to hold on to this level of design thinking and integration of architecture and engineering the third of my four topics is mechanical and electrical engineering I’m going to talk about it in the context of building performance and the systems that use energy firstly why do buildings consistently under perform on their prediction at the design stage there is always a detailed estimate of energy consumption for a typical year for buildings operation and then almost without exception when actual metered data is taken it can be double that original prediction some of this is down to assumptions about operating hours and different functions but it is also about design and systems Arab have a team that works on building performance helping facilities managers understand the designs they’ve been handed this team will carry out checks of systems in operation against the design their findings show the fundamental problem with our way of commissioning and handing over buildings where typically systems are set up too quickly and squeezed into the end of a construction program but that never really get tested and adjusted before being occupied in one example the team saved 120 thousand pounds a year for a client by reviewing and adjusting the building management system set points and finding issues that could only be found once the building had been allowed to operate for a while in carbon terms this is the equivalent to 1300 flights to New York but also a step closer to the original and prediction most importantly this approach puts the facility’s team in a stronger position to make changes and fine-tune the building because of their improved understanding so let’s assume the building is now performing and the systems are working where is the energy used it varies from building to building but this is a typical split for an office a third of the energy demand is for artificial lighting around ten percent is for cooling and refrigeration almost 30 percent is on electricity to drive fans and pumps which are part of the air conditioning another 10% is on heating energy which is usually supplied by gas in the UK and then although this number does vary greatly there is a base load of 10% for computer equipment as I have already mentioned the performance of the facade is the first step to getting it right the facade design determines the system choice and the installed capacity and vice versa the more climatic control achieved by the facade the simpler and lower the energy used this is the Macmillan Center for UCLH completed last year the facade uses a standard system which is triple glazed with integral shading blinds with a very low air tightness the air conditioning systems choice is then focused on clinical needs and not trying to deal with large load variations from the facade related to facade is lighting energy which has the most significant impact on the energy consumption of all the elements the biggest influence on this number after the depth of the floor is lighting control by using controls for daylight occupancy or even introducing task lights lighting energy can be reduced by half the other part of the energy demand pie chart is fan and pump energy the location of ventilation plant in relation to space serves is very important but equally the ability to switch off fans when they are not needed can make a significant impact providing windows that open can mean being able to shutdown ventilation fans for as much as 50% of the year finally there is the computer equipment in buildings that generates heat buildings are still designed for everyone to have a desktop computer with large processing power when in reality there is a whole mix of lower energy devices with more people using mobile devices and moving processing power to central locations so a design could allow for a base load and then extra capacity for localized areas for larger processors or multiple screens but only when needed finally unlike a window which can be seen and controlled directly modern building services are partly considered a necessary evil because they are hidden and bear no direct relevance to the users exposing services does have its downsides but if services are visible both the people who maintain them and the users can see and understand their function in this refurbishment in Tokyo the old ceilings and equipment came out and were replaced by a simple air conditioning system pipes can easily be traced to their source and new cables can be installed without having to carry out major works systems do not have to get more complicated to meet increasing demands on energy and comfort thinking about simple measures in the context of building users will have the biggest impact it brings me to my last theme of building services I’ve talked about architecture building science and building systems this last theme is people how we interact with buildings where we spend most of our time of course many things affect us and our productivity how we might feel any particular morning to the spaces themselves our access to light and the building location but comfort stands out as one of the main issues in most occupancy satisfaction surveys so I’m going to focus on comfort and control if building services as a whole doesn’t get enough air time on projects then the controls of services get almost nothing and yet it is the controls by the building meets the user the freedom that building services allows architecture of which I’ve spoken about already means that these systems aren’t only fine-tuning but also doing the bulk of environmental control so have become completely critical to having a usable occupiable building and this is very much led to centralizing control systems with some aspects like fire alarms and security the benefits of central control are obvious but I would question whether temperature ventilation should be reso remotely and automatically controlled from returning to buildings and obtaining feedback from occupants over the last 20 years there are three things that people repeatedly want more of from their buildings we want direct control of our environment we want a quick response and we want to understand how the building works we’re more likely to accept variations in temperature if we understand why and what we might be able to do about it so rather than this model of control we’re an operator has to be a single point of contact for say a thousand users which usually means days before receiving a response to a simple complaint is there a more intelligent way to use our controls knowledge and the technology to go back to a more direct control for both occupants and building managers so imagine if you could see immediately all the relevant data personalized to you your energy use the temperature in your space for example clearly we don’t need or want occupants to control everything but coming back to the three feedback points of more control click a response and better understanding there is a benefit to all of us to devolve control and provide more information to occupants of course the technology already exists in most smartphones and this idea also recognizes that most of the devices we install have intelligence and an easy means of extracting data even at a domestic level equipment now has intelligence in the form of a processor there are temperature sensors that collect data and will download the latest weather to know what to do the following day so like a series of web pages it is a series of physical devices it is the Internet of Things concept applied to buildings so rather than individual system interfaces for say lighting heating meeting rooms access all of these can communicate through one device it’s not about adding complexity but about making information more available for example an office worker may want to know the best time to open the window to save energy or just be more comfortable and they can see this for themselves on their own device this also helps operators again not with more complexity but by making the interfaces with controls much to use we are trying in our own office a system that takes building managers out onto the floors so they can interrogate problems directly and speak to users directly this all contributes to a sense of control for both parties quicker responses and more understanding as a result of thinking differently about building services I’ve tried to demonstrate that there are a number of different aspects to services and not only the mechanical and electrical engineering ones and all these aspects need to be engaged by engineers and their project teams to get a better quality solution so knowing the technical part of mechanical and electrical engineering alone is not going to achieve this there needs to be integration of architecture structure and services using building science using the knowledge from existing buildings and their performance and understanding people as for my original question is Building Services design and necessary evil that is for you to decide for now I’ll leave you with a project which I’m working on at the moment it is called the white collar Factory this is a photograph of the working prototype for it it’s an office building which is a result of looking at the future offices and posing some fundamental questions about how we design them it touches on all the aspects I’ve spoken about the working solution is a simple cooling system as part of the structure a facade that is tailored to this to provide daylight but minimize solar gains there are no ceilings giving the volume back to the space with simple exposed services but more importantly than this solution the team are thinking together learning from this mock-up and measuring its performance testing the space so that we can feed this back into the main project it is my particular example of applying integrated thinking and it has shown me that there is room for innovation on all projects and for a more holistic approach to engineering and architectural design thank you well first of all I thought is a really really interesting talk by Mike it’s really really good to understand where Mike’s coming from and his background and secondly I suppose you know it’s it’s good for us to see the broader thinking involved and in terms of the white collar factory which you know we’re we’re passionate about we have been working on for years layers in terms of the thinking the model and now at last we’re actually putting that into into reality it’s it’s for us it’s it’s good to see that actually all that thinking does make perfect sense really for and we’ve always thought that and we we believe actually that you know most enlightened intelligent providers of buildings and space should also come round to that way of thinking because I think especially today’s day and age you know in terms of looking at the triple bottom line or it is it’s not just about pounds and pennies you know if you’re investing in something that is there for the longer term you have to you have to look at them obsolescence and longevity and actually this this thinking for this new type of office building is the way forward because it is about simplifying it’s about being more intelligent with less using our materials to do no to their full extent and and giving focusing more on people rather than construction it’s actually you know the the people and the MD is in the occupier actually changing changing or giving them the tools to change their behavior and then actually everything then the flywheels from there as long as as long as you got a building that is actually set up to provide all those efficiencies actually it starts to work because you’re you’re bringing you know people’s people’s behavior what people want to do you’ll bring that together without the building candy and you have the have a much better product and a hands in it a much more sustainable future that actually costs less money burns less carbon hopefully zero government so it’s it’s it’s inspiring to see it obviously we set out in very kind of simple ways in the slides and then actually we hope that the industry moves that that way

HOW TO ANSWER THE “DIVERSITY” QUESTION!! (College Apps + Medical School)

oh my god the diversity question everyone hates this question but I’m gonna hopefully give you a guide to how to address it and I hope you enjoy it let’s get to it what’s up everybody so today I got an awesome video for you guys it’s about the diversity question and if you don’t know what the diversity question is I will introduce it in a bit but before we even get started I just want you to all to know that this is a video that’s applicable to anyone applying anywhere right I saw this question why is that applying to college because a bunch of college app people asked this and I also saw this question when I was applying to medical school because a bunch of medical schools asked this so this video is useful for both of those types of students so with that let’s get started what is the diversity question well as I mentioned to already the diversity question is applicable to both college apps which are starting soon and I think they’re starting in August or maybe even September and they’re also applying this question also applies to med school applications which are already out what exactly is the diversity question that’s the number one question you probably have well the diversity question is a question along the lines of how will you increase the diversity of our campus right and it’s usually not as not it’s not put in simple words like that it’s kind of complicated so I’m gonna let me give you some examples okay for some examples University of Michigan Medical School had this prompt on their second year application it says at the University of Michigan Medical School we are committed to building a superb educational community with students our diverse talent talent experiences opinions and backgrounds what would you as an individual bring to our medical school community and then look at NYU’s med school and why you’ve med school said the admissions committee uses a holistic approach to evaluate a wide range of students a wide range of student qualities and life experiences that are complementary complimentary to demonstrated academic excellence what about unique qualities or experiences do you possess that would contribute if eclis to our school that’s it’s exactly the same thing right it’s just asking you how are you gonna increase the diversity of the school more importantly aside from just being asked this when you’re writing up your application the diversity question is also going to be asked if you interview at medical schools or if you interview an undergrad I cannot be more sure of a question that will get asked because this question a lot okay so with that being said let me go let me first take you through the approach many people have when they see this problem and then let me take you through the relevant relevant revelation I had near the end of my application cycle that I personally think helped me and I hope will help you so first of all the tendency here when you address this question the tendency here is most most people like to think of diversity in terms of race sexuality immigrant experiences primarily because that’s kind of the way the educational system talks about diversity right like if you go to your like Office of Diversity Affairs on campus that’s usually about race or sexuality or or some sort of like immigrant experience so we’ve it’s not that it’s bad to think about diversity in terms of that it’s just that most people think of it in that term and that kind of constrains them from thinking about what else it could mean however I’m not saying that I’m not trying to discredit race sex I’m not trying to discredit racial diversity sexual diversity or even even immigrant experiences as diversity those are all really really great if they apply to you but diversity goes beyond this and sometimes just sometimes like myself when you try to stick to these three it really constrains you from seeing what else about you really makes you diverse because I’m sure these three couldn’t that could be the thing that makes you diverse but there’s also other stuff out there that could make you a lot more diverse that you might not have thought of okay and now let me go a bit into why do you why do schools even care so much about diversity right why do they care so much well I think I’m gonna quote the harvard medical school admissions dean because he said you cannot have an orchestra if everyone plays the same instrument right you you if everyone play the same instrument everyone would just sound the same so you want to have a community where everyone is different because you learn a lot more from people that are different I think that’s the number one thing I learned in college like you learn a lot from people that don’t come from the same background as you and that’s because they have a different perspective and learning from that perspective really can enhance your personal I don’t know well being an intellectual ability right so that’s why med schools undergrad schools all these schools care about diversity and with that being said they want to know what niche you’re gonna occupy in the incoming class are you gonna be the class Prez then are you gonna be the one that might not be super talkative but will go out of his or her way for what he’s passing it about are you gonna be the one that kind of helps your classmates whenever they need help what kind of person are you gonna be right because I kid you not when I say this these med schools and undergrad schools the really big ones have hundreds of students that have perfect grades and SAT scores and trust me they don’t need more of them they don’t need a class with perfect grades and SAT scores instead they want a diverse class they want people that are different from each other and in a way that’s great right I take the example here of Steve Jobs Steve Jobs struggled through high school wasn’t the brightest students dropped out of college and even after that he went on to create this massive empire Apple and they based like med schools they want people like Steve Jobs they want to know people who are gonna be different they want people who are passionate about certain things all right so that’s kind of what you want to think about like what niche are you gonna occupy and how does that contribute to the person you are so let me talk about my personal revelation I didn’t have this until like the end of my med school cycle so I don’t want you to think that I knew this going in because then my application I wrote about my immigrant experiences which was not the best way for me to go because I realized diversity is broad right I kept getting asked this diversity question so much in interviews that I thought about it I thought about it and then I I had this revelation because I was like man I don’t have to think about it in terms of just my immigrant experiences I can think about it in terms of my experiences and passions right so what about you is different are you passionate about I don’t know chemistry are you passionate about chemistry if you are how have you shown that passion right cuz if you say you’re passionate about chemistry that’s that’s pretty diverse you know or if you say you’re passionate about I don’t know business and you’re applying a medical school that’s really diverse because now you’re a medical school student applying to medical school with a business background that makes you diverse right and if you’re passionate about X how have you shown your passion about it what did you do to show that right I have some friends who have played musical instruments their whole life and then they applied to med school and the med school loved the fact that they played this musical instrument right similarly you know for me my thing that I reflected on after a really long time of reflection was my big thing that I was passionate about was like changing the pre-med culture changing it into a culture of collaboration rather than call petition that is diverse because there’s this entire culture that clearly has stayed stoic for ages and ages and here I was trying to change that and that’s kind of diverse about me right or even someone one of my friends he’s also pre-med but he’s a rapper whose name fluido Gnaeus check him out but the point is a prima student who’s a rapper like that’s that’s amazing right and now I’m gonna quote a bit from Stanford med school because Stanford med school preaches this whole thing of like you should always be a doctor and X what is that X for you because whatever that X is for you that’s what probably makes you diverse like are you gonna be a doctor and a runner because that’s diverse right are you gonna be a doctor and a I don’t know tech enthusiast right you can think about that in terms of undergrad applications too are you going to be a college student and something else right hell you could even be like a league of Legends all-time player that makes you diverse okay so think about what you are are you a student and X because that X is what makes you diverse so let me give you my personal example my answer when I actually answered this question on paper my answer was just about immigrant experiences and overcoming challenges that’s valid I still respect that a lot but the problem with that is there are a lot of immigrants and that comes across as cliche because how can you be diverse when everyone else says this tells the same story as you that’s not diverse that completely conflicts the meaning of diversity so by the time I was interviewing I got this question a lot I thought about it thought about it and I had this like spark and I was like you know I’m unique because first of all I mentioned to earlier I’m passionate about changing pre-med culture that was the one thing I kind of stuck on to in undergrad and specifically it was in a very entrepreneurial way right I created a club in undergrad which was intended to assist pre-med students and help change the culture I created this very own YouTube channel to do the same thing right and believe it or not I actually created an organic chemistry board game primarily because I knew organic chemistry was so difficult and these three things you know I created them on my own but I realized that they were the underlying thing behind them was this passion to change the culture which is huge right cuz every time I brought this up in an interview and I was like you know I have a YouTube channel they’re like what that’s pretty insane like how many med school students do you know that have a youtube channel or I was like yeah making a board like wait what you’re making a boardgame like what how do you what aren’t you supposed to be doing research or gappi or something like they found that different that’s novel and so it was really surprising to me because the answer was staring me right in the face all along but I never looked at it because my mindset was constrained by what I thought diversity meant but it can actually mean a lot more than that okay and when I brought it up in interviews as I mentioned to you I got good reactions so just some last minute tips if you’re trying to address this question think about where you see yourself in your future class as I mentioned to you everyone should be a doctor and something else what is that something else for you are you the person who’s gonna go out of your way to be class president lead your class are you gonna be the person that’s gonna promote some sort of I don’t know are you super passionate about I don’t know clean water bottles you could be something that something as small as that is huge okay because something like that is gonna set you apart and that’s what these people are looking for not necessarily in terms of sex sexuality race or even your immigrant experiences but maybe in terms of anything you’ve done in college that has reflected the type of person you are and last but not least if you’re watching this video and you aren’t applying take this video to heart you can build on what I told you here by actually recognizing what your passions are and building on them right focus on aspects of your personality that you see as different and make it happen I have two younger cousin brothers right now that have their own YouTube channel and they’re like they’re just grinding and they’re grinding because they love it right like that’s unique to me I’m like Dean you guys are like a bleep down there in high school but that’s like that takes a lot of guts for them to do that right I have another younger brother right now and he’s like working with his dad to make a game and like that’s pretty awesome so think about what’s gonna make you different and go after that okay and the general belief is it’s much better to be really good at one thing than to be somewhat good at a lot of things and that’s the one thing that a lot of people think they need to do everything know if you can do one thing really really well and kind of elaborate on it through your experiences you will be much more willing to write about it because now you have this underlying theme throughout your application but by no means am i advocating that you change your entire passion or your entire life to try to match one goal if you’re interested if you don’t know what you’re interested in yet by all means explore it but if you know what your passion is stick to it promise you it’s gonna be really really great for you stick to developing in unique ways don’t just like do the traditional router you know like some people are like I’m passionate about community service I’m president my community service club and I’m like all right but I anyone can do that anyone can become president that’s a traditional hierarchy do something else what kind of service are you interested in are you interested in service to the elderly start a club that serves the elderly you know go to the elderly go to a clinic nearby and like see if you can organize a partnership like try to think of new ways to address your costs because that will truly truly set you apart and with that I hope you guys enjoyed the video this is my two cents of how to address that diversity question and please let me know if you have any questions like comment subscribe and I’ll see you guys in the next video thanks for watching

Sample essay 1 with admissions feedback

what I really appreciated about this essay is that the student really took the time to paint a very vivid picture about her experience in this accident and what she learned from it this entire time and and the lesson learned from this experience she clearly went through a traumatic experience having an accident and going through an accident and then was able to turn it around into a positive really explain to us how she was able to conquer her fear and then become an EMT which is something that we as admission officers like to see that resilience that ability to take something that could be a very disturbing moment and really apply it and learn from it in a way that benefits other people and it benefits themselves in the long run which i think is those are all great things the one area that I thought would have been a little bit helpful for us as admission officers the essay she spent a lot of time really again painting that picture setting the scene and I think some students one of the sort of the things that we see a lot is students spend a lot of that time in that as a valuable space on that essay really setting that scene and they don’t really capitalize the moments that they have to explain what they learned we really only get that in the last – I would say the last paragraph of this essay in this idea of I conquered my fear I was able to revisit something that was painful for me and now I’m an EMT and I’m able to help other people going through similar experiences and it would have been nice to hear that a little bit earlier on in this essay she spent practically four paragraphs really sort of going through every detail of both the accident itself and then becoming an EMT and it sometimes can be again you only have so many words on this essay to really put yourself out there and so I would have spent a little bit more time really getting to the point a little earlier on I sort of last last takeaway as I read this essay is I think it’s beautifully written really vivid imagery which I love to see but I would spend a little bit more time really thinking about you know what do I want the admission office and the admission officers to learn about myself through this essay beyond being able to conquer her fear how is that applicable to her as a college student on our campus perhaps it means that she might want to pursue pre-med or the sciences as a possible academic journey or it says something about her commitment to civic duty and the community and spending a little bit more time going back to this idea of how is this impactful on the student itself and what do we learn about the student spending a little bit more time allowing us to get to know getting to know her in a more intimate way I think would serve her really well in this essay

ENG 1101 Outlines for College Essay and Paper Writing Advice

hello and welcome to English 1101 today I’m gonna be talking about outlines so and essay structure and and and things of that nature those of you want to follow along and patterns for college writing the 14th edition textbook for this course I’m gonna be looking at page 61 constructing a formal outline okay I want it I want to tell a story first about outlines a couple of summers ago I was tutoring a student that was not going to this university was going to another university and she was taking an online English 1101 writing course and her her professor made them do an exercise and do an official formal outline as you see in the bottom of page 61 and the frustration that she was having was you know getting the little A’s and the B’s and the ones and twos together and and putting them together in word and and I learned something from that from that experience from that teaching moment in that she understood what an outline was she understood how to organize her thoughts but she didn’t necessarily need to have the capability of constructing a formal outline so the one thing that I want to stress to you is that it’s not that important how you create your outline it’s important that you do and an outline could be if your look if you’re working a job as a waiter or waitress and in between in between lunch and dinner you you know those those rushes you have some time and you’re scribbling down notes organizing your essay on a napkin you know with a pen around around an old receipt or something or it’s just organizing your thoughts and and getting them down on paper and bullet points or on the computer and bullet points before you start going into the writing phase it’s important that your that your si have certain key features that are that are talked about in in chapter 3 in arrangement you need to have an introductory paragraph you need to have a thesis statement needs to be clear and concise we will we will get to those at length later but in order to organize your thoughts like you have to put it down somehow you can have it all up here and then just start writing but you’re doing yourself a huge disservice by by not organizing your thoughts first and getting it down actually writing can be so much easier if you create yourself a little to-do list or a little organization or an outline first and then when you go to actually write the essay you’re not just staring at a blank screen you have directions that you’ve written to yourself to follow you are doing your future self a huge service by allowing the time to think about the assignment and then putting it down on paper whether it’s scribbled notes whether it’s arrows pointing all over the place on a marker board or it’s bullet points in in Microsoft Word or however you do it it’s just important that you actually do an outline first it’s gonna save you a lot of time also I want to make mention that waiting till the last minute to write an essay is never a good idea first of all you haven’t had time to prepare you haven’t had time to get your thoughts down in a clear and concise order to help your future self usually were we’re so busy you know getting getting our future selves in some kind of bind like writing an essay at the last minute just before turn in or waiting til that final hour to study for a test or writing a paper but if you actually outline first again it’s not important how it’s done it’s important that you actually do it okay if you look at the bottom of page 61 it has a thesis statement as I look back at the cheating I witnessed I wonder why I kept silent and what would have happened if I had acted okay so that’s the thesis statement for this essay it’s the first person I say so you’ve got an organization structure the incident and under the incident you’ve got test situation my observation my reactions and my reactions also being a list of anger and silence being part of her reactions okay this is just one way to do it and then part two of my essay is gonna be reasons for keeping silent were other students attitudes my fears part three is current attitude towards cheating Effects of cheating on education Effects of cheating on students okay so it’s just kind of it’s a list and so as you go through and you write your rest and you’re like what was I gonna talk about next or you take a break and you come back to it and you’re like oh yeah I need to finish up this paper what was I gonna talk about next oh yes correct reasons for keeping silent excellent okay so you’re creating yourself like kind of a to-do list of the points you want to make in your essay and it can help you a lot in the future okay so it’s not important that you follow this direct directly it’s not important that you create the little E’s and Roman numerals and stuff like that I’m not gonna quiz you on on whether or not you know how to make an official outline it is actually become a smaller and smaller part of this book but what I do expect is that you think about what you’re gonna write before you sit down to write it and you actually take the time what most people don’t realize is that you say I waited to the last minute to write this essay and it took me four hours okay it could have taken you two hours one hour of proper planning outlining could have been on a napkin you know could have been on a on a notebook could have been on your phone you could have been talking into your phone I want to make sure I cover this oh yeah one more thing I want to cover this we all have you know we all have a note-taking device right here it’s very simple you just push record on the voice recorder it’s really easy so there’s a lot of ways to do it you can save yourself a lot of time you could have been spent an hour or half an our planning the essay and then an hour writing it and maybe another half an hour reading it over to make sure you didn’t smell anything wrong or grammars correct and all that stuff so instead of spending four hours we racking your brains sitting there at a blank screen and writing things and deleting things you could really save yourself a lot of time so when it comes to outlines I’m not gonna quiz you on the proper outline I’m not gonna tell you to make a formal outline every time you write a paper but writing an outline and this is an example on the bottom of page 61 in patterns is the most important thing you can do when it comes to invention and invention with regards to writing so I’ll see you in another video in a few minutes I’m going to talk about the assignment this week

Software Tools for Writing Projects

hi my name is Alex Palecek my nickname is Sasha and I will be presenting on software tools for writing projects today um I have a set of keynote slides that I’m going to be using during the presentation and I’ll be reading from a script from time to time so if your paper rustling that’s probably why and I’m also going to be showing you some specific software tools for and all that I think can be really helpful in approaching writing projects and a variety of tasks I have about five tasks that I’ll tell you about that I think are important to think about when you’re choosing a software that you might use in your writing process and there’s something about writers there are kind of two classes of writers there are planners we would like to plan everything in advance and sort of make an outline and then fill it in with detail and unknown advance what the map is and then sort of discover the writing territory and those people are called planners as a class and the other class of people and it’s called Panthers because they like to fly by the seat of their pants they just get in there and write some stuff down and then later on find out if there’s there’s any kind of linear format or hierarchy that emerges from just getting in there and getting started and whether you’re a planner or a pantser hopefully these software tools will have something to offer to you a little bit about me before we get started um my interest in software tools for writing stems from a couple of sources last year I was writing fellow at the CI is Center for writing and scholarship that’s at the California Institute of integral studies and so part of the fellowship program was training in academic writing and then actually helping students one-on-one with their study skills and with the specific demands of academic writing so we would meet in session and there was also a sort of a workshop format that we would do we would bought multiple people to come and learn about writing and write together and for that project actually um designed I research designed and developed a mindful writing curriculum to trying to integrate mindfulness practice and skills on one hand with the writing process and yeah then seeing how these two things can support each other so that was part of what I did during the fellowship here and I also have a background in actually being a writing or a computer consultant since I was about 13 I’ve spent time working with people one-on-one and in groups helping them to use computers so rather than letting computers use you we should find ways that you can use computers and that it should be as easy and straightforward and as pleasurable as possible so those are the two kind of background pieces I bring to the writing and software side of things and in terms of my own research as a doctoral student in East West psychology at CIS I’m going to be writing a dissertation that looks at mindfulness and psychotherapy and bipolar disorder one of my research goals is to come up with a new sort of psychotherapy approach integrating contemplative psychotherapy and mindfulness practice as well as some other things and what I found when I was getting into it is that there’s so much research and literature out there and so many ideas that I couldn’t manage it all on my own just thinking about it there’s just way too much information so part of what I needed to do was find out ways to store that information and then find ways to transfer it into a written format and so I ended up doing a lot of research into specific to software tools to do that and so the core of what I’m presenting it’s kind of for important software packages that I use to manage my dissertation writing process and that is the basic intro for how I got here and what I’m hoping to offer to you and oh and I also want to say that even if you’re not an academic writer if you’re writing for professional reasons or for creative writing reasons I think that these tools can still be helpful to you you don’t have to be an academic I think that they’re applicable for all kinds of things and anytime that we have a writing project the the tasks that I identify and potentially the software tools that I identify I could be useful to you and and even if these specific tools aren’t the ones that you end up choosing hopefully this webinar will inspire you to find tools that really do work for you so that you can design your own workflow for you okay um and then there is a Q&A; feature in the Google Hangouts app the people who are viewing live on and then I won’t be able to actually have time for the questions until the end so feel free to ask questions as we go along um there will be about 10 minutes the end the question-and-answer but I’m just going to be looking at slides are showing you slides and by demonstrating the software for the most of the center part so go ahead and ask questions using the Q&A; as we go along it all try to answer them um okay so that’s the basics so I’m gonna slip some switch to my slide show it’s very okay alright you said a little bit about this presentation software tools for writing projects then I’ll check my nickname is Sasha if you aren’t you can reach me at Alex Palecek comm why writing software well one good reason to use writing software is to stay organized there’s a lot of research there are a lot of ideas and there are lots of things that go into writing as a process and keeping things very nice can really be helpful in terms of making writing as friction-free as possible it will allow you to collect research and sources and find a way to store them and organize them and then use them later on in a way that works for you and it should help you to flexibly brainstorm one of the big tasks of writing is getting started and then once you’ve gotten started finding ways to move ideas around until they fit in the right way yeah writing software should reduce the cognitive load especially when you’re dealing with a lot of information it can be hard to think clearly about how it all fits together and writing software should do some of the heavy lifting of certain parts of the process so that you can focus on the writing itself and finally writing software should simplify the writing process as much as possible in this presentation I’ve identified five kinds of tasks that are necessary that software can help with the first is brainstorming and planning getting those ideas out there moving them around seeing how to connect and forming an overall plan for how you want to approach your writing project the second task is outlining which is a way of taking information and putting it in a hierarchical format so that you can see how different parts relate to each other in a linear way and if there’s an order and if there is a sort of a tree like structure and outlines can help with that collecting research is another important task that writing software can help with composing and managing writing projects there our software tools that can help you with all the different tasks of actually writing and then managing the project and finally citation management having sources and being able to cite them in a way that’s easy for you to approach these five kinds of tasks I have selected four pieces of software that I’m going to be talking about today these are scalpel notebook Scrivener and Zotero the first piece of software I’ll present on is scalpel scalpel is a visual spatial brainstorming and planning tool it allows you to arrange your thoughts in a free-form way on the page and find the connect choose between them so you can easily record your ideas and move them around until something that works comes to it and something I really like about scaffold is that it can be hierarchical or it can be freeform a lot of the mind mapping tools that are out there force you into using a hierarchy format but scalpel lets you it doesn’t make you do that basically it’s a lot more like writing on a whiteboard or a big piece of paper so let’s take a look at scalpel and see what it’s like so here I have a new scaffold document the first thing to know about scalpel is what it’s like to actually add a note it’s pretty simple you just double click so here’s my new note I’m going to call it the writing software webinar and then I just click off of the note to do you select it and if I want to create a new note I double click again something about he know that’s the presentations that I’m using so I’ve created these and then to link them I just drag one on to the other and then I let go and it creates this line here this connection and then I can move this one around and it stays connected so that it’s able to really be reorganized spontaneously if I want to create lines with arrows what I do is I drag and hold down a modifier key on Mac I hold down option and I let go and then there’s an arrowhead if I wanted to do the other way I would grab the other one is start with that and if I want to create a double-headed arrow and then grab the other I hold down the modifier queue and then do that so there we’ve got something like that it’s easy to move the font size up and down using command plus you can style text and make it bold or underline it and you can also change some of the color options on the page you can add what are called background shapes which are basically like boxes that contain other shapes and you can also scroll in and out on the screen here I’m going to do it by using my touchpad with the pinch or a reversed pinch and you’ll see that here it scales up quite a bit you can also use the zoom slider to zoom in very close and something I really like about scalpel is that it has a pretty big diagram space this is the maximal zoom out and if you check out the zoom in you’ll see that it’s pretty easy to move in and out and to make a big map with lots of connections you can also drag images into your scalpel map here that go on with this gentleman and some cats don’t drag in and another one with this adorable kitten can add in your background shape drag it around it I don’t you know to say cute kitten lips like a bold make it’s very and it’s so easy to connect these different items that I use scalpel as the beginning point for lots of my writing projects I actually used it to plan this webinar then here’s the first map that I made nice to talk about it so you’ll see it’s possible to get a lot of information out or down on the page and I build this up over time and so I started with an idea of some of the kind of main points that I wanted to cover which ended up being maybe these these titles here that I inserted and then I delineate the topic with these background shapes here I assembled I created a linked list that if you want you can go to my website later and read and link to some of these software products and as I was going I realized I needed to annotate that so in this case this just says Oh remember to link this um and um it’s basically just a really easy way especially for people who are visual thinkers like me to rapidly move from a free-form brainstorming place to something where you can really assemble some more structure and make things more workable so for me scalpel has been a really powerful tool and I really encourage you to check it out um it’s available for Mac and Windows and I think it’s about fifteen or twenty dollars and it’s pretty cool and maybe I’ll show you one more example of the scaffold file just to show you more about how things can get impressive to define this so um I was researching contemplatively and I came up with this map that connects all of these different articles it was a way for me to organize my thinking about these different articles there is a mindfulness there is a writing and theories of learning and pedagogy and then I even used it to sort of map a research idea so I wanted to design a class and also have it be based on research and then have a research method where I would deliver the class and then have a research outcome and this talked about sort of the outcomes so it’s a really flexible thing you can use it in all kinds of ways and yeah I really encourage you to give it a shot okay so that’s cool I’m gonna switch back to keynote for some more slides all right so next I’m going to present on notebook for outlining I’m gonna there will be a notebook segment for the next part too but here I’m going to be focusing on the hierarchy creation aspect of notebook so basically in outlining allows you to organize information hierarchically and then once you’ve done that and you’ve got it into sort of points and sub points and sub sub points you can easily show or hide the information and that’s helpful if you’re planning for example a long research paper or a long book or a allowing an involved process a project with lots of to do points and sub to do points what’s nice is that you can you can show or hide even most of a document if you want to focus just on one little piece because the vise is overwhelming and there’s too much information and another thing that outlining software is great for its clarifying the structure of the information so you’ve got a lot of information there and by putting it into different chunks that allows for the structure to come through so let’s take a look at notebook as now line tool so this is a basic notebook page let me show you what a new one looks like just you know just kind of pops up like that and you can make it be mind and change the font and all I’ve got stuff in this particular notebook you’ll see there’s the contents pane over here and it shows what all the contents are it mirrors this view here and here you’ll see is the hiding the showing and hiding then you keep read this and press this little triangle it’ll reveal or conceal the contents and I’ve set up a writing webinar demo here at this example page so I’ll click on that so you can go through and um here there are already a couple of example items I’ll just delete these so I can show you how easy it is on basically to create a new item you just hit return so this isn’t my new item and it create another new item new item too all right so now I have two items I hit return again and if I want to create a hierarchy I’m talking movement I just hit tab I hit tab in the end tabs and now it’s a child so to speak of the other one so here I’m going to make some sub points some point one point two sub point three and you’ll notice each new item it tabs to the same level of indentation as the prior item and now that these things are set up like this I can show or hide them right it’s also really easy to drag in other items I can drag in this JPEG of a hawker unicorn and if I just drag it in here it’s gonna create it I think in the highlighted item so just add the file I know I created a new item and if I want I can even drag it to make a little bit bigger and then I can hide this in one of these sub points like that so it was possible to pack a lot of information here but to present it in a way that’s relatively easy to use if we look at one of these weeks I used this particular notebook to take notes for one of my classes a couple semesters ago you’ll see this little standpoint theory item here if I show it there’s all of this stuff that’s open and I can choose which parts I want to show and which parts I don’t want to show and I can have multiple levels of depth to my outline so that basic functionality about outlining is what I wanted to point out about notebook and it’s also something that’s possible in the lots of different software so let’s go back to the slides to look at some other aspects of notebook specifically here for collecting research so another really important thing you want to be able to do for your writing probably is to gather in stored research research could be research articles it could be interesting quotes that you’ve read in some book it could be notes for your novel it could be images that inspire you or that are related to your topic you want to gather it and have it be sort of in a safe place and then once it’s in a safe place you want to be able to organize and understand it you can sort it in the themes you can see if there are links among different aspects and you might want to tag files for example in order to have easy access to them later on or you might want to just find on the name of an author so you should be able to search and preferably in multiple ways to find the information and then you also want to be able to get it back out again whether that’s for writing to make it an easy writing tool to work with or if you want to export it to another format in case you decide to move to a different platform or whatever down the road so let’s take a look at notebook for these gathering research functions and for this part I’d like to show you my total bibliography this is a place where I keep notes on all of the articles that I read for my dissertation so I read them and as I’m going I might have some opinions about it or I might want to write a synopsis or I might include annotations here this is a an article in narrative research I have the citation information here so it’s easier for me to know where it’s coming from I have a link to the PDF on my harddrive and then I have the page numbers and some quotes that I thought I might end up using later on in a paper that I’d write here’s an example of an article on bipolar disorder where I have a lot of annotations that I highlighted in the PDF and then I was able to just take those highlights and paste them right in to my notebook so I have everything alphabetized by the last name of the author and so it’s easy to find all that stuff basically there is a multi decks feature that’s really cool um where circus ponies notebook automatically creates different indices or different index with these different reasons so we can create it for keywords and created for text if I want to say oh how many mentions are there or the word above there are 32 in all of the tax that’s in this notebook and it can also do it for things like keywords I’ve created some keywords on some of these articles so here’s really easy and if I just click on it it’ll show me all of the articles that have attachments in this case okay and it’s also really easy to just do a find there’s a what’s called a super fine and circus ponies notebook and here is already populated with mindfulness because that was my last search we’re gonna go ahead and do that and then it’s gonna bring me to this super find results window it found a hundred six articles in the whole notebook and it reports each instance of the word mindfulness in context it shows me the words that are around and then it lists additional results on not following pages and if I want to go to that and it shows me what article it’s saying I can just click here and it jumps to it right in context and then if I’m gonna go back to the search results I can just hit back so it’s quite powerful and I also want to point out that notebooks don’t only have to be this sort of somewhat drab lined notebook and lots of sort of serious research stuff it can also be a little more fun and fanciful you can change the background color and drop in all kinds of things you can tilt photographs and style text and you can draw diagrams here’s an example of a diagram that I’ve drawn for my Zotero workflow which is one of the users talked what we’ll be talking about later on basically here I’ve done some outlining some sort of sketching things that it might do in scapular another to us here this is just to show that there are some drawing tools that are also part of circus ponies notebook circus Bernays notebook is the only piece of software in this lineup that is only available for Mac if you’re using Windows or Linux there’s some other good alternatives out there OneNote is a is one that can work for Mac and Windows they might want to look into and there’s also Evernote which is popular that’s a cloud based solution that people often use for creating these sorts of research collections and there’s more information on OneNote and Evernote and all of that stuff on my blog on my website with some links to things for this whole presentation you can check that out later if you want so let’s switch back to the slides and talk about Scrivener Scrivener is an integrated writing environment it’s maybe the first kind of software of its kind is really specialized towards writing long texts like a novel or thesis or dissertation or a book you can use it for other things too a managing blog post and stuff like that but it really excels for the longer project and part of what’s really nice about Scrivener it has lots of different tools that you can use but it doesn’t impose a writing process or a writing style for Panzers you can kind of just get in there and later on figure out the overall arc of the story and for planners you can create a pretty detailed outline and go from there fill it in and make it all fit so it’s quite powerful and rather than just talk about it I’d like to show you a little bit because that might communicate a little better about so here’s a basic Scrivener window I’ll just show you around a little bit here on the left side is a segment that’s called the binder and the binder is kind of like a table of contents that shows the structure of your project and allows you to keep tabs on everything and easily access all of the components of your project this central pane here the big white space is the composition area where you do your type and up here is the toolbar with easy to access commands there are also some commands that are in the menus that are not available in the toolbars although you can add them if you want and up here is a formatting bar if you want to use that kind of format so in terms of the basic advantage of Scrivener what Scrivener is unique for and and really makes it powerful for longer texts is its basic model is that of what they call it scribbling and and to explain that let me talk a little bit about word or other traditional word processors if you think about word and you’re working on a Word document it’s kind of like one long scroll typically there’s one window it’s a long it’s a long single scroll later on for printing and cuts it into pages but for the most part you’re working in scrolling back and forth between the bottom and the top and somewhere in the middle Scrivener takes a different approach to the written document on a computer which is that it actually breaks your document down into many small fragments I say it but really you do you’re able to break it down into many fragments and then Scrivener sort of glues them together in the order that you’ve dragged them let me show you an example here so here I’ve got this untitled document and I’m gonna hit command n to create a new document and they call this as Scriven II so I’m gonna call this driven ensue okay so this is my what we were just looking at is untitled I’m going to rename that scripting one and I just double click on it to rename it and then here I switch back to scribbling – so here’s typing some more all right typing some more for the webinar now up here in the View mode you’ll see there are three views if I click on the draft here it shows me everything that’s in that sub document everything that’s below draft it’s going to show me when I’m in this this group distributing mode so it shows me these two scripting sort of glued together and then if I compile for export it’s going to glue them together in the order that I want now if I want to rearrange the order of these in word you’d have to do something like take this cut it move to the top paste it but here what I can do is I can just drag this one up and they switch its you know and I can also type type in here and edit driven in to write so I’m in this long mode but I’m editing scribbling to write so it presents this enormous flexibility and to show you a little bit more of a developed document let me show you the script for this particular webinar so I used scape oh I’m alright move from scalpel to Scrivener to create the outline for this presentation and I started by just creating those points that you saw in this guy now these ones and then I had a I also had a more simplified version when this became too complicated to kind of boil it down another scaffold now but basically I moved from there and copied and pasted things directly into Scrivener and then those became sort of the these mini scribblings here these sub components of it of the of the presentation and then if I switched to you can switch back and forth between this sort of single view of just the individual scripting because this contained this is a scripting as well we can click on it again and I’ll show you everything that’s underneath it so here is showing us these five items all together and there are some other really powerful tools for a composition part of things like here if I click on compose it enters me into full screen composition mode so it removes distractions you can also set different backgrounds and you can format your text however you want I’ve chosen this sort of very plain format because that’s what I want but not everybody likes that you can easily zoom in so it’s easier to read I’ll have this done and let me show you a couple of the other views that are available so this here is the I’ll switch back to this oh I forgot I wanted to show you something else about the composition window something is really powerful is the split screen view so here there’s this little button right here if I click on it it splits the composition the screen so I can have one piece of a document here and another piece here or I can have the document that I’m writing on that I’m writing right here and then I can have research information over here such as a PDF or whatever and if you hold out a modifier key you can split the screen horizontally so these are edit and these are options for the editing view and then there are to other modes in the view in the scrivener view modes that are really powerful the first one is the cork board and the cork board is basically a place where you can you can manage documents like little index cards you can create synopses here I can write a note to myself write more about how Scrivener is helpful and here I can write a synopsis about the lab or a position editor ok and you can move these around to reorder them you can drag one into the other so that it becomes a sub document like that I just do that say I’m going to drag it back out I can and you can also add labels for example I can add a status to do and the status first draft and I can also add labels like I’ll just call this one concept and this one chapter and it gives these little colored corners and you can change all of the options about how it presents these you can make them larger and and so forth let me show you in the in this document what the cork board note looks like at the draft level at the script level it shows these different sub points here and I can also just drill down by double clicking on the document icon into that one and if I want to look at collecting research oops click them in one spot here you’ll notice that it has the same label this to do label that makes the whole thing pink all right and then there’s a third mode that’s important to know about which is the outline mode and that’s the third one up here the outline mode and it always displays the level that I map in the binder so if I back up on the draft and then I do this hide and reveal thing right here it’s going to show me these different levels of the document so here it’s basically showing me in a census is replicating this the binder but it also allows me to add different columns than to sort by those columns like if I wanted to view by the synopsis if I wanted to synopsis to be included I could do that I can say Oh show me oh there are no synopses in this one that’s the problem um and show me the keywords and the creation date and also the progress you can you can actually create you can create progress targets say I want this part to be 300 words long now in this part to be 600 words long and then this bar will slowly fill up until you research reach your target and there are way more features in Scrivener then I can cover in this brief presentation but but just to say that it’s an immensely powerful tool and I really recommend that you look into it it’s a it’s about 40 or 45 dollars I think there’s a student discount that’s available and there’s also a free 30-day trial and that’s something that literature and latte offers and they also are the creators of scalpel so you could try this both of those out for 30 days for free and Scrivener is available for Mac Windows and Linux and it has a learning a learning curve but it can start being useful to you even about you know even if you only use the split screen view and you you you just drag these around it might make it worth it especially for longer things and you can always learn more as you go and it really takes the cognitive load off because you don’t have to keep the whole document in mind the software does that for you I really recommend taking away so let’s switch back to the slides and take a look at Zotero Sottero is a citation management tool and it’s going to help you to easily cite sources you read some books or some articles and you want to let your reader know both where you got your information so that they can evaluate if it’s good information and you want to let them know where they can look to find out more information so Sottero makes it really easy to cite sources it makes it amazingly easy to generate bibliographies and it will automatically format your citations and your bibliographies in the format that you specify if you want them to be an APA style it will do APA style if you want to be in MLA style it will do MLA too much Chicago it’ll do that in there is a host of other styles that can generate to and it’s really a snap no more three hours at the end of the paper giving all the citations just right literate does that automatically and it allows you to build a bibliographic database for your whole career if you read some seminal texts in your master’s degree and later on you want to cite them during your doctorate you already have them in your database at your fingertips and it makes it really easy to continue forward in that way so let me show you what the software looks like and then we can see how it goes so this is the basic Zotero window on the left is a list of folders that I’ve created if you go to the top one this is my library and this shows you all of the articles that are already in my database I’ve got here it says 421 items so I’ve already got quite a few things in here each of these things is sorted into one of these folders as well and for the purposes of this demonstration let me create a new folder I do that by clicking on this button here and I’ll call the writing software webinar and then it shows up right here so this is where the citation information is going to go and then let’s take a look at this PDF that have already found and selected for this it’s a PDF aankhen template of an dif I want to store it in my Zotero database I just drag it in you don’t have to store your PDFs in here but you can so I’m just going to show you how to do that and then I’m let’s say I want to look at it because I want to populate the citation information so what I’m gonna do is open it up this is just my PDF you were this is the article in question and what I’m looking for is the DOI the digital object identifier which is kind of like a PDF or an ISBN but for academic articles so for newer academic articles I don’t know published since 2000 or something like that you can usually find a DOI so I’m just going to copy it and then I’m going to close this view and come back to Zotero and then I’m going to click on this little magic wand and it says add one or more items the illogic pmid so I’m gonna paste the DOI in there and I hit return and it automatically populates the database with the title of this it creates these nice creator and date lines and it creates all of this information so that I didn’t have to enter anything by hand but it automatically got the DOI information from some database on the internet somewhere no let’s say that here I’m going to drag this PDF on here so that it becomes a child item that’s how it kind of stores attachments is in this kind of format there are also places where you can add notes if you want about the document templated ed and it allows for bolding and highlighting and stuff like that and you can add tags you’ll notice up here in my library there’s a bunch of different tags that is populated way so if I wanted to I could create tags for this particular PDO this particular document and I can also add multiple notes and Link it to related items alright so that’s how you get them in there once they’re in your library you can search for them like here I’m going to search for heart which is the last thing with the author I give the also search for content little opening the content with mine in the classroom that’s the one in question okay and then I can actually cite what I have here so let’s look at the citation function how to actually get information from Zotero into an article so let’s open a word processor I’ve opened Libre Office here or neo office which is a Mac version of Libre Office and Zotero comes with three plugins for adding for using the integrating it with word and with Libre Office so let’s say something about the template of Education all right and then I want to insert that heart citation so what I do is I go here to this insert citation button and I click on it and then it asks me what citation style I want to do it and here I’m going to say APA there’s also a way to if you write an article in APA once and then later on you want to convert it there’s a way to do that um and I’m just gonna select these default options and say okay I’ll do it in APA and now it gives me this red bar and it’s a hot bar that filters so I’m gonna just type heart couldn’t tap with it and then it shows me the options I’m like okay I feel it’s right down to that one so I hit return and then it pushed this blue bubble in right here and then because this is the only article I want to cite it in this particular sentence I’m just gonna hit return again and it’s gonna drop it right in there just like that okay so it’s really easy to generate citations and it doesn’t in the proper formatting for APA and I didn’t have to type that anything and then some other articles I just want to put some more articles in here you know if we wanted to be really APA appropriate we would have the period at the end okay some are there articles so here I’m going to insert those other articles you can do this as you write or you can do it later on it’s up to you I’m gonna just grab a bunch of articles I’m going to just put in mine for putting this one I’m gonna do mindful again and put it in this one and then mindful alright and then let’s do template so now it’s got this list notice it automatically alphabetizing them for me and if I hit return again it’s gonna drop all the citations in there just like that alright so now I have my citations there in my document now how do I create that bibliography this is the part that’s really exciting so here i’m gonna type references which the atheist i’ll and this is the real magic here you there’s this um this other button up here for insert bibliography i click on it and there you go they come through they’re formatted and it’s ready to go no more three hours you know looking at the APA style guide and making sure that it fits so there is a caveat for it to do that properly you need to make sure that each entry is accurate so you need to make sure that the database actually gave you good information so i checked it to make sure oh yeah that looks good right um and if you enter information by hand you need to make sure that you have the right date and and all that information too so you have to curate your database and then your APA formatting will look good but if you do that it will look really good and it it’s pretty amazing in terms of the time saved and there it has other features you can sync with the server and you can share your citation repositories with other people too but um that’s more in-depth and you can find out more about that on the cetera website and let’s go back to the slides for the wrapping off the presentation here alright so in summary why use writing software it helps it to stay organized it helps you to stay on task it makes writing easier and that’s said the really important thing is to use what works for you I’m a believer in optimal structure now they’re too much or too little so it will probably need to take a while for you to tune in or dial in exactly how you want to use it you have to play around a little bit find out what that is but using these software tools you know there might be some upfront effort that you have to invest in order to learn them and to get proficient with them but after that they should really be pleasant and easy it shouldn’t be a chore it shouldn’t be a drag just let it be playful and maybe a little bit of a learning challenge but mostly it should really support you in your process in terms of the four tools that we covered we looked at scalpel which is a tool for brainstorming and planning we looked at notebook from circus ponies and notebook is for outlining and collecting research that’s what we talked by using the foreign yell we looked at Scrivener for composing and managing projects and we looked as at arrow for citation management I want to say too that there is some overlap among these tools so the ways that I use them might not be the optimal ways that work for you but I hope that these pieces of software inspired you to find the right situation for you and to that end I created a blog post about these and other kinds of software that I thought might be helpful for you as a writer and if you go to my website I’ll just take you there now actually and show you where you can find it so whoops so my website is Alex polish ENCOM this a le x p al ec UK calm there’s not a lot up there right now but there is this recent post software tools for writing projects if you need to you can also probably search you know writing software and then it’ll bring you to this blog post you can just click on the title and here I just go through my feelings about these different software products and give you links to them and to some other options and I go through these exact same categories of research management outliner brainstorming planning composing and managing and citation management and then at the end I have some tips for software efficiency for grad students and also some more about this book organizing creativity which I really think is a great resource that anybody who is engaged in any kind of creative process can use in order to better manage collecting ideas organizing them and implementing them you can download his book for free and if you like it you should pay him for it there’s an option to do that too alright so back to the slides so um again I’m Alex Palecek get me Sasha and if this is interesting for you I’m available for writing consultation I’m also a psychotherapist and a researcher into mindfulness and contemplative psychotherapy for treating bipolar disorder if this or anything else I mentioned is interested in you feel free to get in touch my email address is Sasha at Alex polish a calm and my website is and now there is type of questions let me see if anybody has had any questions so far oh great there are a few okay so Michelle has some comments thanks for that Michelle scalpel and being a great visual organizer yeah it’s really amazing I really uh I really think it’s a cool tool and as you point out in the give scene cognitive load really does make space for creative flow if you can make it so you’re not holding so much stuff up you can kind of let the software hold it for you and then you can hone in on what it is that you really want to do that both in terms of what the information wants to say and what comes up from inside of you to say about it and Malin says something about being introduced to these wonderful tools to make the creative process and the writing that much easier and I think that’s a really accurate than to say you know it’s so easy for writing to seem like a chore and to manage all of the bits and pieces especially when the projects get bigger it can be sort of like drudgery but if we’re able to use these things to do some work and then set it aside then when we find more juice to be creative about it we can branch out in new ways and then we’re also able to go back and look at the work that we’ve already done and come back to it that’s something that for me I think has been one of the biggest lessons in doing the the coursework and the dissertation proposal research that I’ve been doing is picking up a writing project working on it intensely for hours you know dozens of hours maybe and then just putting it aside and then coming back to it a month or more later when I have a renewed effort and that’s something that the software really helps me to do because not only do I have the written piece itself but I can have all my notes about the ways I was thinking about it all the brainstorming stuff and all of the citation is kind of stored away so that later on it’s really easy for me to find out information and have it at my fingertips late or not yeah so I hope that these tools proved to be as helpful for you as they have for me and I’ve also demonstrated I think that you can use them not only for writing projects but also for other projects like planning and creating a webinar you know I used keynotes to do the actual delivery and I and I demonstrated the software in order to give you a real sense of what the software is like but in terms of the planning it was all really kind of all scaffold and Scrivener that I used for this and then if I want to decide stuff I will do that later on using the citation manager um and I hope see that you’ll check out my website and that blog post um just because it has more information about other options you know might give your Windows user you probably won’t be able to use circles poems notebook but you can find other things there that can be helpful and that can help you find something that really works for your style so I guess in closing I’d like to say thank you for watching whether you’re watching live or you’re watching after the fact I hope that this presentation has really been helpful for you and I want to invite you please to feel free to get in touch with me if you have any questions or anything at all really you can either send me an email at sasha at alex Palecek comm or you can if you want you can leave a comment on this page about this this webinar or you can leave a comment on my blog in the software writing tools and again my my name is spelled Palecek al e.x.p.s in papa al e c EK comm – that’s my website so good luck riding out there good luck getting these tools going and and feeling it out and I’d love to hear from you in the future okay fine

Ph.D Ultimate Guide: Entrance Exam, Writing Research Proposal & Interview (Guide for Beginners)

[Music] this video I’m going to talk about how to apply for PhD and how to write a research proposal for the same I don’t know that all the students who are applying for net exam some will they might want to do PhD in some point in their life but since this PHP thing is a very new space for them they’re really worried they don’t know how to fill her fee into the application form how to go about within it what are they going to say on the day of the interview they are not sure about how to write a research proposal how to pick up a topic for PhD research and a lot of questions which keep on bombarding their brain so I thought of making a video in which in a step-by-step manner I can tell you each and every thing that we want to know how about PhD so for your convenience and provided this video in two sections in the first part I am going to talk about how to apply for PhD in any university or college so I’m going to tell you all the steps that you need to take and the entire procedure of PhD in the second part of the video I’m going to talk about research proposal in detail so I’m going to give you all the guidelines for writing a good research proposal how to choose your topic and then how to organize your research proposal and can typically and how to write it in a particular format so what’s this video too bad because if you look forward to do PSB in future I’m sure this video is going to help you out so you really aspiring to become a research scholar there are a few things that we need to know and there are a few steps that you need to take before you get yourself enrolled as a research scholar in the university now this process might seem tiresome but I’m telling you that it is way more simpler you have you must start imagine so broken down in five steps so that you can know where to start and where to end the first step is that making a list of all the universities where you wish to apply for PhD so whatever your subject may be you need to have a word with your professors or maybe with your friends and then finalize the list of colleges or universities where you wish to apply for PhD step number two is visit the website all these universities that you have listed down and then one by one jot down the dates where their PhD forms would be releasing for example if you are looking forward to do PhD in English and you might want to do it from Delhi University or maybe from John they are all from genu then just go to these websites and there’s a section or a specific section for PhD scorners where you can see all the recent notification and you can see when are they going to release the form for the PhD admissions so just draw down the names of those colleges as well as the date when their forms will be released and before that they keep on checking their website on a regular basis so that we know if that’s any update there’s no other way you can know about the PhD entrance forms unless and until you go to their website and check it yourself now the third important step that you take is to fill the application form once the application forms are released on the website of the college or university where you wish to apply for PhD you need to fill the application form at the earliest don’t wait for the last date it’s better to fill it in the initial days so that’ll ruin face and we saw every issue or any other issue now once you fill in your application form you need to take care of a few things now move on to keep all your documents stand okay in your computer folder before your said to fill the application form because you know one goes to all the universities and fallenness they are going to ask for the stand copy of your event stand copy of your signature all the sand definite graduation and post-graduation mug sheets so you need to have that in place apart from that also understand that there are few universities in India where do we do submit a research proposal while you’re filling in the PhD application form okay because you might have this motion in your mind that okay we need to submit a research proposal on the day of the interview know there are a few universities right that universities where you need to submit your research proposal on the day when you’re submitting your PhD application form so always have that ready with you how would you relate it what are the guidelines what are the things you need to have in mind when writing a research proposal are going to discuss all of that in the next section so just patiently wait for that section to come the fourth step is the written test or the entrance test now once you fill the application form keep visiting the website of that University on a North so I can get to know when are they conducting the entrance test there are a few universities where you need to sit for the entrance test and thank for the interview whereas if you have your next certificate in a few universities you will be exempted from the written test because you have already cleared hoobnet exam and you’ve been clinically sit for the interview so be sure what is the process of the university in which you are applying if you need to sit for the infants you have to prepare well for the entrance most of the time the syllabus that you’ve studied for net exam would be very similar to the syllabus for the PhD entrance as well or in case if you already have PhD or you have the next of the ticket and your University exempts you from the entrance test you just need to wait for the notification of interview to be released on their website and finally we come to the fifth set that is interview so the day of the interview you just need to have all the original documents lined up in your folder in a file which you are going to carry because you submit a copy of that before you go and sit for the interview apart from that there are a few things you need to remember for the interview number one you need to have a thorough command or your subject so get all your basics right you need to know about your masters about all the things you’ve studied in your masters with this most of the questions are going to come from that apart from that I’m also going to ask you a lot of questions about your research proposal so make sure you have not copy and pasted your research proposal from some internet websites because they are going to catch him you need to understand the fact that research proposal is your baby so it should be your ideas it should contain your vision your objectives you will take references from various sites from various friends but at the end you make sure that you have written it so once you give your interview after a few days you find that they’re going to announce a list to tackle it it’s who they have selected for PhD and the list is going to was probably be released on their website you can check the list if you are lucky to have your name in that list then you should celebrate because that is when you get to know that you have finally managed to get yourself admitted as research scholar in that University and after that or there are a lot of other things that you need to do you need to go through a period of coursework then there would be a presentation when you’re going to talk about your research proposal finally your topic would be finalized then you have a face-to-face interaction with your guide you will start writing about the research that you’re doing you’re going to chapter are you said if you’re going to talk either I use it and all these things are going to smoothly happen because once you get yourself enrolled in any good University it’s the duty of that University and the guide to take you through this process because they also know that it’s it you you’ve just managed to clear all post-graduation course okay and now this research field is given to you so they are for you to tell you each and everything about it the only thing you need to focus right now is this fantastic journey that you have to take all by yourself there is nobody to guide you at the school once you pass the interview you get selected after that you will have the entire University team that is going to help you in the next couple of years now that we have known how to apply in a university for PhD it’s important for you to understand how to write a research proposal I’ve been receiving a lot of phone calls on a daily basis there’s two bills ask me please suggest a topic for research proposal please tell me how to write a research proposal so I thought that it’s high time I should make a video so that everybody can know how this entire thing takes place so off we you to understand how to write a research proposal at pointa okay with the score at Collinwood now all the parts of the sampoorna world is going to tell you one of the things you need to incorporate in a research proposal because it’s a very systematic thing it’s pornos a format and once you write everything in the format of meat then the university is going to accept your research proposal so let’s start with the T so T stands for Titan the first important thing in your research proposal is the title of your research so what are you going to research it should be concise and it should be meaningful you should not write an entire paragraph as a title or else you should not leave it very open-ended okay so it should be very concise as well as it should be meaningful it should tell what exactly are you researching on the next introduction which stands with I okay so introduction is going to include all the basic facts about your research and your research area which is the area where you are researching you are also going to add about the area and the importance of that in here why you have chosen that area for research how is it going to benefit the humankind plus you are also going to add a few things about the motivation so what motivated you to take that idiom okay for example I am do you or PhD research right now and the topic of my research is myth as a political philosophy in the works of the epic novel so my area is in in my quality and there’s a huge motivation behind it because I’ve been brought up in a very religious family and I’ve been reading a lot about them in my ecology and muharram so that is what excites me and I’m really passionate about knowing more and more about it so that is where the motivation part comes from and that is what I have to include an introduction the third thing is with B we have problem statements now what is the problem statement a problem statement is going to tell about the issues that you will to address in your research what is the problem that you are looking at and you are going to talk about it in a very clear and concise manner the next is your objectives now what is objective objective is the motive while you are doing the research what are the benefits that we’re going to deny it after this research so basically the University which is going to take you as a research scholar they are going to ask you that why should they allow you to do this research like what is the objective what are you going to do for the benefit of the mankind so basically you need to write five to six objective and that is the cue so whenever we do anything we ask ourself any Q continue okay so that Q is the objective so it is the motive and the benefit that is going to come out of this research so after objective the next important thing you need to mention in your research proposal the literature review so you need to tell the college or the university professors about what already has been done in your field of research for example if my topic is indeed my apology I need to talk about all the research which has already be done I wanna make my college if how my research is different from them there’s no point doing the same thing all over again it’s submarines actually done the same thing then I cannot research on the same topic because then what am I going to do everything about that topic has already been found by that person so in literature review you are going to talk about all the research work that has already been done in your field and how your research is going to be different from that and how you were not able to find certain answers in their research and that is why you’re going to answer those things in your research so that is about the literature tweaking we move on to the next topic which is research methodologies now what is research methodology research methodology basically talks about this tools and the methods that you are used that you’re going to use in the course of your research if order to solve the problem that you have in your hand so for example if I’m talking about it as a vehicle of philosophy in the works of data but now I’m going to use mid criticism I’m going to use psychoanalytical criticism in order to study the works of they defer time similarly you can use case study so way in order to gather information about what’s the problem and finally move the words the solution so that is for you to be there written in the research methodology last but not the least we move on to the section which is called references we all know that there’s a limit human brain we cannot know everything when I hope you’re researching on anything how going to take help from various sources and it is our duty to tell everybody about the sources from which we have taken health so all the sources are mentioned in the references section and there’s a particular study in which you mention all these writers I still remember that giving my graduation I was going to research in the field of psychology and there was this particular format we used to always use while we were giving a references to the books and to the writers and that was known as the American Psychological Association so APA style we were using superiority in different fields you have different styles of referencing so you need to either buy that style and accordingly you need to cite all the people from which you have taken inspiration from which you have taken some facts and you have shared it in your research proposal so I am believing that the video turns out to be a bit boring because it had so much information that I want you to give you but I’m sure that this information is going to help you if you are able to do PhD in any codes university or college I’m wishing you all the best for your future in the world stay tuned to our to the carotid confident don’t forget to subscribe to this channel we have very close to get 1 lakh subscribers and that would be a big thing for us so do support us and you can also follow us on the social media platform if you are propelling the UGC net English then you can go to my website article calm and check out the online course we are offering you so that’s it for this video lecture we are going to beach very soon in the next video lecture there is a curve in each next happy learning keep lab unit rate off and stay tuned I pick a car but calm [Music]

Descriptive Essay Writing

hello everyone welcome to study IQ in this video I will tell you some crucial points how you can score very good marks in descriptive essay writing what are the things that you should include in your essay and this will be completely by my own practical experience these writing skills have helped me individually and also a lot of my students I have taken a lot of classes for GMAT GRE for cat and for other higher level exams which require a grid you know a very good command over English language and therefore I will bring that experience into play in this video I tell you some of the some of the things which you can include in your essay which will really make your essay stand out from the rest and therefore you need to be you need to be really vigilant you need to very carefully pay attention to this video now this is something which I have been using on a personal level when I write any essay I choose this format and this format you will not find it anywhere you will not find it at any book you will not find in any any any literature any website this is purely what I have been using myself so whenever I am given an essay to write I am given any topic to write an essay upon I follow this strategy first I do the beginning that is I elaborate on the topic that is given to me and I in this video only I will take one example and I will write an essay for you or I will tell you the main point so that you feel really confident going into the exam then I explain citing all the examples I take sides yes I do take sides for example any topic that you will be given to write on you may need to choose sides some people prefer to write from a neutral point of view but I always take sides because after all why are they why happy examiner given this essay to write to a particular student because he wants to know what he or she thinks about that topic now gone are the times gone are the days when you know you don’t you have you know you have had to be politically correct in everything no don’t write an essay with a very defensive mindset be aggressive be expressive rather if at all you need to be aggressive then go ahead but make sure that whatever side you choose you are very confident about it you can give a certain point or an explanation about it some very well-thought-out point statistics to prove it or something even if you take the side that is negative does not matter you should be able to justify it for example let me give an example let’s say if you are given any topic to write on about Kashmir right the Kashmir problem it’s a burning topic it’s in news Kashmir is the news for all the reasons you had the killing of Gihon money and you had earlier this year you had the JNU protests you had Kasab issue so there is lot of issues regarding cosmic Kashmir and whenever you are given a topic like this you do need to take sides because you can’t be indifferent to an issue like this you cannot be indifferent you either have to support it or you don’t have to you either have to you either have to take the side that okay you are Pro India or you have to write in that not I am NOT saying that if you are saying that Kashmir is not an integral part of India or then you are not you are not Pro India or I don’t want to go into the controversial side of it all I want to say is that if you are give if you are given any topic then take sides especially on topics which require which require you to take sides for example if you are given a topic on Kashmir it is very difficult for you to write without taking a side that’s all I mean to say and when you take side you will feel more confident while writing now that will be your third thing which you have to do also why I am writing it like this is because you can structure your essay like this for example you can start beginning so that will be para number one two three I mean the beginning s paragraphs let’s say you want to write ten short paragraphs right so you can structure it to to to to n2 or let’s say if you want to explain it more than you can do three here and one here similarly if you want to put more into conclusion if you want to add words in conclusion you can give three paragraphs for conclusion one here one here two here right like that so you can first thing before you even start writing an essay what you need to do is you need to structure your essay spend some two minutes three minutes and although it will be an online exam you will need to type it on your computer still you will be given some rough sheets where you can design your essay so for example let’s say this is your rough sheet so on this rough sheet first structure your essay okay I will write five paragraphs okay and keep in mind the word limit if they have told you to write it in 700 words then to write in 700 words only now let’s say this is your beginning para so plan what you are you going to write in the beginning then you are going to explain in detail citing all the necessary examples then you will tell your own opinion about it that is take sides but but a very important point and this is where you will score a lot of marks let’s say you have taken this side okay so I am making a this is positive side this is negative side now by positive and negative I don’t mean you know you are negative towards the idea no I am just saying that there are two sides of a coin so first side is the positive side and the back side is the negative side I don’t mean that you are a negative person if you are taking a negative side or there is no negativity as such involved right so let’s say you have taken a first side of the coin then you will write points related to this in take sides this side this paragraph but make sure that you also negate the opposing point of view for example let me give you an example let’s say if somebody asks you should Raghu Rama Rajan have been allowed to take the second you know Tom or should his tenure as the governor of the Reserve Bank of India be have been extended now let’s say you want to say yes yes Raghu Rama Rajyam should have been extended so this is the positive side yes if you want to say no it’s fine whatever the government has done it’s fine so no right now on the positive side if you are saying that Raghu Rama Rajan’s any or should have been extended then you write why it should have been extended so you can write all those points that well he is a very renowned economist number one he has been able to reduce the CPI inflation the CPI inflation is the lowest in the last ten years so right these type of points which which you know right about his performance right about some of the extraordinary things which he has done so for example he has been instrumental in formulation of lot of policies like in the Thermage plan for revival of the banks something like that that you write in this farah where you are supporting his extension but don’t forget to negate the opposing point of view for example when you have taken your side and you have written why he should be there you also have to write why the people who think he should not be there you know they are wrong for example one of the criticism of Raghuram Rajan is that in his tenure he has not been able to revive the public sector banks now there are 27 public sector banks in India and he has not been able to revive there is still a lot of loss in fact officially RBI has said that almost half the banks have posted losses in the last one year so what was the average undoing he has not been able to do it I agree that some part some part of the blame must also go to the Ministry of Finance but he has also to take his share of blame so this is a valid this is a valid point of view for those who don’t want to his extension so how do you counter that then you should say that mission in revenues is a recent plan and whether it be roots or not remains to be seen we say that the policies which are designed by Rajan will not do any good to the public sector banks so then how will you start writing it you say that some people say that Raghu Ram Rajan has not been able to revive the public sector banks however it is too early to judge him since the policies that he has formulated are recent so something like that so whichever the point so you before writing the opposite point of views you should think about it what can the possible criticisms of Raghu Rama Rajan be for example for this you can read what Subramanyam swami said about him that he is pro-america in his policies you know he is not decreasing the repo rate which is you know which is not increasing our GDP rate things like that and then you negate the point that why these points by the people who say this they are wrong and you give the logical explanation that will make your case very very strong because you have not only supported your point of view but you have also proved others wrong so that you do just before conclusion and then you write the conclusion that okay so therefore to conclude to sum up using words like these that I tell you later in the video so this is how you should structure also some people have a habit of writing like this okay there is this para which is given to you and they will just keep on writing without even giving a space these people have already hit the nail you know on their own feet they you know they will get very very less marks they because the examiner as soon as he sees your essay he will get to know that this person is not trained or he has not done his homework he has not properly prepared on how to write the essay so the very first thing you should do is structure your essay there has to be proper spacing between the essay there has to be proper commas and foot stops at the right place so at least do the basic you know the base get the basic hygiene right now I tell you how to begin your essay how to begin your essay so one of the things that I used to do is I always used to start with a code but the but the thing is to write a code this code is a same by a famous person it can be a general universal principle it can be anything but make sure to know the code you know you have to be a well-read person you have to have a very good journal knowledge you have to have a good knowledge of the courts itself so at least learn 10 to 20 very good idioms and phrases or learn at least 10 to 20 very high quality quotes from the books they can be motivational they can be and don’t include the code for just the you know the inclusion sake include it only if it is relevant also when you begin then always stick to the topic always start with the with the topic itself for example let’s say if you are given a essay on climate change right how will you start so first you can write a code regarding how the you know how are you know whether some some famous person must have said something that our world is going to end soon if the you know shame on human being something like that you know which says that we are the culprit and then you start with how the human beings they have very less regard for the climate but even before you start that then you can mention about the cause of it like for example the the global you know our world the world we live in is a you know is giving a lot of importance to the GDP rate to the economy you know and we’re you know as a result are the focus of all the countries is you know is to get ahead in the race and things like that so after that you write that what has happened because of this is there is a rampant depletion of our forest resources that there is a depletion of the you know the environmental flora and fauna and then you start with how the climate change is occurring whatever is happening and things like that make sure when you begin you do not deviate from it sometimes it may happen that you can get a very tough topic to write on you know which you have very less idea now in such case you would want to include fillers by fillers I mean the sentences which are just to take you know space but don’t put fillers in the beginning or in the end make sure because if you put if you start with something like a filler or a sentence that is not very important then you will you have already lost the impression good beginning is half the job done as goes a popular x IAM now these are the words which are very very impressive when you write an essay if you are expressing similar ideas then you use the words like not only this but also that this is a correlative conjunction you can use moreover these are all conjunction conjunctions are the word which join the two sentences so you can use n you can use furthermore in addition besides you know so hence therefore now let me give an example how to use this for example let’s say the topic is is religion is religion the evil that we talk about or is religion or is religion an evil that is the thing now now you want to express about your views about this right so you are want to take the side yes yes religion is an evil and you want to express two similar ideas by similar ideas I mean that this sentence will also say that religion is an evil and this will also point towards the same fact how will you join these two sentences by using moreover furthermore for example religion has led to you know wars in the Middle East you can give the example of Middle East versus Israel Israel here is Q has Jews and the Middle East has the Islamic population and between them there has been a Wars so that you can mention here and then you will say in addition to this or furthermore or besides this basically these two coins will point toward the same fact they will point towards the same idea then you use these words and if they point towards the opposite idea then you will use these words however otherwise instead but yet in contrast and tow these are very very impressive if you use these word these conjunctions in your essay so this is very very important now when you conclude your essay then conclusion of an essay should start with the restatement of the thesis statement in other words the topic which you have been given and you should include words like to conclude to sum up also don’t write things like you know in you know like some people say according to me so don’t use this according to me does not exist in English it is very wrong to write something like according to me right in my view in my humble opinion as far as I think or as far as I am concerned also avoid writing in too much of first-person first-person mean writing as your own like I words like I we we must I must I think I should avoid these write in a new in a third way like it is seen that for example if you write a sentence I think that the war between Middle East and Israel is because of religion then that will have less Vantage compared to it is seen that the war that there are wars in the world for such as in the Middle East that are because of the religion so if you are writing it is seen that that is a third person if you are writing is I think I I am of the view then you can include this only one or two times but don’t go again and again writing I think I think according to me and things like that you write in my view in my opinion as far as I think as far as I am concerned to conclude to sum up adding to the fact not withstanding the fact so try to include as many conjunctions as possible also when you start your conclusion then stick to the topic which you were given and stick and start your conclusion by proving yourself that therefore you know that I mean first write the sentence and therefore it has been established that or the above example state that or in my view as far as I think and then you start your sentence so that is how you should start your conclusion and your conclusion should contain the main main points from your the body of the essay the body of the essay is your the paragraph two three four by two three four I mean the concept two three four that is your explanation your points for the idea and negative the opposite point of view include the main main points in your conclusion and also it should demonstrate how you have proven your point of view as I said you want to prove that you were right in the conclusion not before that before that you keep giving on examples and keep negative the opposing point of views but when you write conclusion you should prove yourself that yes I have done sufficient now to put forth my point of view and don’t include any new points in the conclusion don’t include any new points conclusion is only for your inference or conclusion and nothing else don’t include any more examples here also conclusion should bring a closure to the essay don’t treat it like a film ending that you can keep it double or you know you can keep it open like like there are some movies for example in which the ending is like you know there is no ending you know it’s like open ending so don’t do that because in these exams they want to they want to see how you conclude what is your point of view whether you have been able to defend the side that you have chosen they want to see these things so this is the general schema and now I will tell you how to put this into practice because until and unless I give you an example you know all this exercise is quite futile so let me give an example now let’s say you are given a you know something to write on that is about women empowerment right so I check the past papers and I found that all those exams in which there is a descriptive component whether it is essay writing whether it is paragraph writing it is argumentative essay writing scripta Vesey or whatever there is an element of writing something related to women is always there whether it is women empowerment whether it is the role of women in today’s world whether the women leadership is their gender ratio whatever right so let me take a common type of a of a you know topic like women empowerment right so you can put a code to start with something like this you know a woman is the full circle within her is the power to create nurture and transform Diane Mary child now one more thing if you don’t remember the author’s name then just write something like Chinese saying and no one no one gives two hoot whether you have written it whether it is actually a Chinese saying or not no one bothers about it just write a code and write Chinese saying or write Greek saying popular saying something like that no one cares or you can also say as goes one saying or as is being said or they say that a woman is the full circle within her is the power to create notion and transform your opening line itself will create such an impression on the person who is reading it that you know you have already done half your job here they say that a good beginning is half the job done so this will make sure that the person you know just imagine that the you know the reaction of a person when he reads this line he will immediately get to know that this person has done his homework avoid cliches when you write now see this is one thing that most of the people do and they lose marks cliche means something boring things see for example if you are given something like women empowerment then don’t go on writing about you know women if a woman is strong then a household is strong you know if a woman is empowered the country is empowered everybody writes that how your essay will stand out from others if you keep writing this cliche things these boring things and in agreeing that we should respect women you know women is the woman is the you know what they say the leader of the nation you know things like that don’t do it don’t do it avoid cliche just make one point that yes women needs to be empowered that’s all but don’t go on just saying about things we should respect women we should care about women they give love and care they give love and affection to everyone women is 50 percent of the nation avoid things like that don’t use too many general or common things that everybody knows they don’t create impression they will not fetch you marks so keep that in mind another very important thing use statistics very very important because statistics what are statistics they are the facts and the facts cannot be questioned that is what the me is the meaning of the fact fact is you’re some observation or they can be from a department for example the Department of Industrial Policy and promotion says that 30% of the woman you know this department has now 30% of the woman so use statistics like this or for example you know that in Air Force now there are three women fighter pilots that have been included this is a fact this cannot be questioned and when you write this the examiner we get to know this is a well-read person the person in here who is writing is a well-read person he knows about his GK his current offense so use as many examples as possible statistics as possible and for example Haryana now Haryana has one of the lowest gender ratios in the country and in the last 10 or 12 years the gender ratio has significantly increased in favour of women in Haryana so that’s a very positive step that is a statistic you can write the actual statistics if you know if not you can you know you can mention about it similarly Kerala similarly you can write about the states in which the women are educated that crimes are less or you can write the success of the marriages in states where the gender ratio is good so you can try to correlate the facts and use as many statistics as possible then you can mention about Rajasthan where the according to 2001 11 census use words like this as for the 2011 census as for the 2011 Social Survey you know the Rajasthan has the lowest literacy female literacy in India and in Rajasthan we have the highest female feticide and things like that so you are using statistics and statistics cannot be questioned next use your own country example now look this is very important point now let’s say you are given women empowerment so obviously you have to mention some women who are empowered right and they have brought lot of fame and lot of pride to India for example you want to mention about maybe cult notch Amla you want to mention about you know maybe Indra Gandhi but the but the thing is you know when you write about going empowerment you can also mention foreign people like lot of foreign people but they will not create as strong an impression and make sure that even if you are using a foreign subject as your example then she has to be really positive person right for example and not a controversial person for example if you are saying Hillary Clinton right then she is not out and out positive okay there is a lot of negative about her she is a very dubious kind of a person to mention because she has a lot of I mean you know that there was a recent email leak in which she was shown to support the corporates so the you know don’t use controversial people okay first even if you want to use foreigners use people who are out and out positive for example if you are writing about mail you know the the popular Indians or the icons then you can mention people like Abdul Kalam because you know there is very less negative about them or if at all so they are mostly positive similarly try to use Indian example and now be smart for example this is a banking exam right so banking exam give the example of women from the banking sector that will create a bigger impression for example Arundhati Bhattacharya around 30 Bhattacharya will get you more marks than Kalpana Chawla simply because of the fact that Renata Bhattacharya is the chairman of the State Bank of India and in the recent Forbes list she was one of the one of the most powerful she was declared as the most powerful woman in India one of the most powerful women in India similarly you can mention about Chanda Kochhar who is the head of the ICICI Bank so give example from the banking industry itself that creates a bigger impression do not fill the entire essay with example now look this is one mistake which 90% of the students commit when writing essay and I tell you what that mistake is now for example let’s say you are given an essay women empowerment so what the students do is let’s say this is an essay they will start writing so let’s say they are writing core of the paragraph this is the introduction this is the conclusion and in between there are four paragraph now what students do is they fill the as say with example rather than the broad points for example first paragraph they will write about Arundhati Bhattacharya second paragraph they will write about Chanda Kochhar third paragraph they will write about Aishwarya Rai fourth paragraph that means the what is the point you have taken 70 percent of the space in an essay with only examples you should have just mentioned their names that’s all now in this paragraph you should have mentioned that there have been lot of Indian women who have brought glory pride to India for example recently Duty Chen she qualified for the Olympics in 100-meter race which is not easy for people in India which are genetically not good at sprinting but she has brought immense pride to India or you can mention out onto the Bhattacharya and things like that but don’t overdo it don’t just fill the point filled all the space with examples examples are only to elaborate a point or to validate a point the marks are for the points and when you put an example it is like you know in Hindi you say Sonia peso Haga so you are examples they will add value to your point but if the points are missing and the entire paragraph is only examples example example that will not serve the purpose now be as creative as you are now as you must have seen that during the course of this explanation you know we have touched upon various sort sort of points be as creative as you can and don’t don’t be don’t shy away from being creative don’t think that you have to you know you have to follow what everybody else is doing be original in your ideas even if they are slightly aggressive go ahead with it does not matter now see these are some things which cannot be taught to you these this will come naturally to you for example if you are from a Hindi medium then chances are you will make more grammatical mistakes you know these see these are some things which cannot be taught you know in this video so for example grammatical mistakes this if you have a very poor English then there is very little you can do in a very short amount of time you can still improve but you know it will take you some time to correct your grammatical mistakes for that you need to continuously write and write and write and then get it checked from a good faculty good English ability who can correct your mistakes so that you don’t repeat it the next time then avoid stylish vocabulary see you this is one of the thing that again you know lot of vocabulary you know vocabulary is good using stylish or impressive vocabulary is good but it is not the main point they are not giving you an essay to write so that they can check your vocabulary not at all if you have already a good vocabulary go ahead with it the the you know the idea is to check how you think how well read you are how you can relate the topic how you can correlate various points and the idea is not at all to check how impressive your vocabulary is for example if you want to say fully then say fool only say foolish don’t say impetuous you know it is it was impact to us or something like that don’t write work every which even the examiner don’t understand so be clear in that if you have a good vocabulary you can use some words here and there but don’t overdo it and this is one thing use idioms only if you are confident idioms and phrases if you have been using use it otherwise completely skip it don’t use idioms too you know just because you have to use them know now this is also one thing since only a few days are remaining for the exam go through all the burning topics very very important for example right now what are the burning topics well there are topics regarding banking for example this question will surely be asked in banking how we can use technology how we can make banking better you know or something related to Kashmir issue maybe we are India’s relations with other countries and things like that something on globalization or industrialization environment global climate change this is very important so just so you can write the essay prepare five to six key points this is very important five and six points like for example these are the points which you cannot think these are just which you have to include for example if you are given something to write on climate change then you should mention the words like carbon footprint you know carbon footprint you mention about greenhouse gases you can mention about Kyoto Protocol Montreal Protocol ozone layer you know you can mention about the countries which are which I have the highest greenhouse gas emission like China and USA you can mention about the cop21 Paris conference Paris declaration which every country has signed so these are the things which will fetch you point so mention do some research and prepare five to six key points for example have there been any committees in India for financial inclusion like that about various panels committees the head of those committees this some who made that committee and these are the five six points and rest you can fill with your own intellect now I will take a practice session for you and you really need to follow when I say this okay so write an essay on banking technology right don’t actually write it but think about it for five minutes take a page right now and see if you if you don’t do as I am saying it will not help you to improve you know if you directly see the answer or what I am going to write it will not help you the only thing that will help you is if you take five minutes right now and you actually write what are you going to write just write six points or five or six points you know what are you going to write if you are given banking technology and think for five minutes write it on a piece of paper and then relate to what I am going to say so pause this video right now take five minutes and write five or six points in banking technology so come back I hope you have devoted five minutes now some of you may have written points like you know let’s say this is your essay yeah and this is the rough points which you want to include so as soon as I said banking technology some of you must have already started jumping to the F F names for example there is an app called chiller right there is a there is a app by ICICI there is a by SBI so I am sure you must have read lot of GK current affairs you must have seen my videos and you must be knowing two three names of the popular apps of all the banks and some of you must have you know written a lot of these names of the apps now this is again the mistake you are doing because you are focusing a lot on the examples they don’t want to know the name of the apps and also app is only one part of the technology one small part of the technology that is mobile banking that’s all so if you mention the word mobile banking that will give you lot of marks rather than the name of the app and then in an example you can say for example that see in India if you like if you write something like this that in India there are six lakh villages only fifty thousand villages have banks or any bank branch that means five lakh 50,000 and you can calculate the percentage so most of the India Indian villages don’t have Bank and it is very difficult to you know for banking to reach out to these remote areas in a very short span of time it will take us another 50 years so with the help of technology we can reach how we can reach because you know even in villages everybody has mobile India has eight Picaro mobile phones and they are there in the tier one town tier two town remote areas rural areas everywhere they are there so through mobile banking you can reach those areas so this will give you more marks rather than writing about all the app name there is a app called children there is I have called SBI wallet there is an app called this this don’t don’t so this was the exact point that I said don’t focus more on example focus more on points and also don’t include general things like you know technology via you know technology is a great help it can make a developed developing country to develop countries these are fillers these are filler point for example if you have to write in 700 words you have written 500 good words but you still need 200 word then you can go on elaborating you can use order fillers use this a you know not so important points in between somewhere but don’t make the core of your essay with these points so keep that in mind these are very very average points now let me tell you what are the good points which will give you marks so these are the great points common service centers brilliant point see I told you out of 6 lakh villages in India 50,000 villages in India they don’t have only 50,000 villages have banking right so five point five lakh villages don’t have any banking facility and what is the government doing the government has decided to connect these with common service centre also called CSCS in short so if you mention mention CS C’s that will be a great point it will give you a lot of marks because the government is actually doing it government is actually connecting the remote villages in India with the common service centers this is a part of the digital India campaign then you mentioned about how the banking has changed already for example previously we used to do a conventional banking if we had to do any transaction be used to go to the bank we used to stand in the line we used to wait for our turn it will it was time consuming then it we started using online banking what is that that is technology that is an example of banking technology then from online banking we switch to mobile banking so now mobile banking is even more convenient it is banking on the go wherever you have mobile you can do your mobile banking your online banking so this shows a shift in mindset of the people include another example here for example HSBC Bank what is HSBC Bank Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation widgets headquarter in London very very important bank China HSBC Bank has decided to shut down 50% of their bank branches in India why because they think they are sure with the help of data that the customers are going digital customers are embracing digital banking therefore this is a very good point this shows customers want to have convenience options customers one one to stand in line so the mindset the consumer behavior is changing HSBC Bank has shut down 50% branches because of digital banking this shows that we are moving ahead in technology customers one technology mobile wallet mobile wallet like Paytm for example Paytm mobile wallet is one of the fastest growing industries in India right now so also mention about dsb Bank DSB Bank is one of the biggest banks in Asia it is not a small bank and DSV Bank has brand ambassador Sachin Tendulkar in case you don’t know so DSP Bank has introduced DG banking that is complete banking on mobile phone only that is DG banking similarly there is something called as unified payment interface which is launched by the national payment Corporation of India this is very very important unified payment interface this will connect all the banks very conveniently to all the e-commerce platform for faster transactions then another great point will be technology can create a cashless economy if you have a cashless economy then the black money will be less because we will not use the physical nodes per transaction we will use the cards similarly you can mention about a committee so very recently there is a committee which is called which is set up by the result Bank of India it is called Sudershan Sen committee this committee is set up so to do research on digital banking in India by the RBI this shows that even RBI wants to go digital so this will give you a lot of marks and then you mention about Financial Inclusion what is Financial Inclusion you want to include each and every person in the country in the financial bracket for that this is only possible only to technology because to reach out to each and every person through physical banks or brick-and-mortar is very very difficult so Oh technology can only help in financial inclusion and in venue mention financial inclusion you can mention about all the committee’s in financial inclusion like deep ohonta committee you know all these committees but now see here is one thing you are so far all you have is positive positive positive right it makes sa very linear very one directional what you also have to do is include slightly negative what are the challenges there are challenges in technology also for example in online banking there are cyber crimes so yes there are challenges but we need to overcome these challenges with the help of technology with the help of more secure technology and time has come now to embrace the technology because conclusion is technology is a great leveler leveler means it through technology the rich and the poor that divide that is there between the two the hiatus that is there between the two will get reduced with time so this is your conclusion that yes we should embrace as much technology as possible into the banking sector because technology places everyone on equal pedestal technology equals everyone so this is your conclusion so like that you have to design your essay so I hope this helped you somewhat this video helped you somewhat if you want that I share with you some great points on the burning 10 or 20 or you know most know asked topics or the topics which have very high probability of coming an example write in comments and I will bring that video by tomorrow evening but do write in comments only if I receive a significant number of comments will I bring that video to you so thanks for watching